OCE1001notesfall2011

OCE1001notesfall2011 - OCE 1001 Elementary Oceanography by...

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9/30/11 OCE 1001 Elementary Oceanography by Dr. Allan J. Clarke The Adrian E. Gill Professor of Oceanography Florida State University Fall 2011 Notes for OCE-1001 classes from Oct. 4 – Nov. 3, 2011
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9/30/11 5:30 PM OCE1001 Professor A. J. Clarke Page 1 OCE 1001 Elementary Oceanography Dr. Clarke's part of the course is loosely based on parts of the book. The notes and not the book form Dr. Clarke's part of the course. Ask questions Videos are part of the course. You may be examined on them. Introduction The field of oceanography has four principal categories biological oceanography geological oceanography chemical oceanography physical oceanography Section 1. WAVES 1. Introduction to Waves 1.1 Generation wind gravitational forces of the moon and sun ± tides underwater land movements ± tsunamis 1.2 Sinusoidal waves Water surface at sea is chaotic Despite this, it can be thought of as a sum of simple sinusoidal waves 1.3 Terminology
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9/30/11 5:30 PM OCE1001 Professor A. J. Clarke Page 2 crest: The very top of any wave. trough: The very bottom of the depressed hollow between two crests. wave height: The vertical distance between the top of one wave crest and the bottom of the neighboring trough. wave steepness: The ratio of wave height to wave length. still water level: The average level of the sea surface (the level of the surface without any waves). amplitude: The maximum vertical displacement of the sea surface from the still water level. period: The time it takes for one complete wavelength ( e.g., from one crest to the next) to pass a stationary point. wave speed: The speed with which waves pass a stationary point. wave frequency: Two times ± divided by the wave period. Note: Wave amplitude is 1/2 of the wave height.
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9/30/11 5:30 PM OCE1001 Professor A. J. Clarke Page 3 2. Types of Waves 2.1 Gravity waves Suppose we lift up the surface of the water as shown. Gravity causes it to fall. It overshoots the still water level, forces water out from underneath and causes mounds of water on either side. These mounds of water fall and create new mounds, etc. We end up with waves propagating away from the initial displaced sea level. Gravity is the restoring force that causes the waves and these waves are consequently called gravity waves.
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5:30 PM OCE1001 Professor A. J. Clarke Page 4 2.2 Capillary waves Waves for which surface tension is the restoring force. Floating paper clips? Reason: The ‘tug of war’ on molecule A by molecules B and C is not along a line and so the two forces do not completely cancel even though they’re equal in size. Imagine yourself as a person at A being tugged as shown by B and C. You’ll be moved perpendicular to the water surface. The two forces can be summed by the triangle rule for addition of forces: The surface tension acts on the curved surface to try to make it flat. It is this upward force, trying to make the water flat, which enables the heavy paper clip to be supported:
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course OCE 1001 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at FSU.

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OCE1001notesfall2011 - OCE 1001 Elementary Oceanography by...

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