chem study guide

chem study guide - Atomic nucleus- the dense positively...

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Atomic nucleus - the dense positively charged center of every atom Electron - an extremely small, negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the atomic nucleus Proton - a positively charged subatomic particle of the atomic nucleus Neutron - An electrically neutral subatomic particle of the atomic nucleus. Elements - any material that is made up of only one type of atom Atomic symbol - An abbreviation for an element or atom Atomic number - A count of the number of protons in the atomic nucleus Isotopes - Any member of a set of atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Atomic mass - The mass of an element’s atoms listed in the periodic table as an average value based on the relative abundance of the element’s isotopes Period - A horizontal row in the periodic table Group - A vertical column in the periodic table, also known as a family of elements Shell - A set of overlapping atomic orbital's of similar energy levels. Valence electrons - An electron that is located in the outermost occupied shell in an atom and can participate in chemical bonding. The first shell holds 2 electrons Radioactivity - The process in which unstable atomic nuclei break down and emit radiation Alpha particle - The nucleus of a helium atom, which consists of 2 neutrons and 2 protons, ejected by certain radioactive elements +2 Beta Particle -An electron emitted during the radioactive decay of certain nuclei. -1 Gamma rays -High frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by the nuclei of radioactive atoms. neutral Half life - The time required for half the atoms in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay Transmutation - The conversion of an atomic nucleus of one element into an atomic nucleus of another element through a loss or gain in the number of protons. Nuclear fission
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PHY 101 taught by Professor Heatherpatton during the Spring '11 term at Jefferson College.

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chem study guide - Atomic nucleus- the dense positively...

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