LAB 5 The Homo Genus.pdf - Lab 5 | The H u200b omo G...

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Unformatted text preview: Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C Name_________________________________________________________________________ Date _____________________ Harrison Glover 6/27/20 LAB EXERCISE 5 - 100 points (4 pts per question) EARLY VERSUS LATER MEMBERS OF THE GENUS H ​ OMO Refer to the pictures below to answer the following questions. 1. Which of these 4 mystery fossils is H ​ omo habilis (​ could be more than 1)​? W ​ hy? Skulls (a) and (d) are Homo habils because there cranium is higher and more rounded. 2. Which of these 4 mystery fossils is H ​ omo erectus (​ could be more than 1)? Why? Skull (c) is Homo erectus because it is a large skull, that has a slopping forehead, a massive brow ridge and a broad, flat nose. 3. Describe at least two traits you used to make these identifications. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. trait that I used to make these identifications was cranial proportions and head slope. The first has the most dramatic head slope of the four, and the skulls of (a) and (d) are much more Skull (c) rounded. Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C THE EVOLUTION OF BIPEDALISM Use the A ​ ustralopithecus afarensis​ and H ​ omo erectus​ postcrania pictures below to answer the following questions. 4. Describe at least two postcranial traits that differ between these two species. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. The pelvis and rib cage of the Australopithecus afarensis is greatly wider than that of the Homo erectus. 5. What do these differences suggest about the two species’ degrees of bipedalism? These differences suggest that Australopithecus afarensis was not as advanced at bipedalism as the Homo erectus. Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C HOMO ERECTUS​ VARIATION Refer to the pictures below to answer the following questions. 6. Describe at least two traits that differ between these fossils. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in each of the fossils. The back of the cranium of is pointier, and the slope is less intense in fossil (A) than that of fossil (B). 7. Why might these differences exist? (Hint: Consider factors such as date, environment, adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.) These differences might exist because of the differences in evolution among the two. Fossil (A) is closer to that of modern human than fossil (B). 8. Do you think these differences warrant the classification of these fossils as two distinct species (​Homo ergaster and H ​ omo erectus​)? Why or why not? Yes, they are both different skulls from different points in evolution. Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS Refer to the H ​ omo heidelbergensis​ and H ​ omo erectus​ crania pictures below to answer the following questions. 9. Describe at least one trait that these two species have in common. Both skulls have similar orbital holes, as well as brow ridges. 10. Describe at least one trait that differs between the two species. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. The teeth of the the Homo heidelbergensis fossil is less rounded than those of the Homo erectus skull. Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C STONE TOOL TECHNOLOGY Examine the mystery stone tools pictured below to answer the following questions. 11. Which mystery tool is a handaxe? Mystery tool (A) appears to be a handaxe 12. Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. The teardrop shape of the tool was what led me to identify it. 13. What tool technology does it belong to? Prehistoric stone tool 14. Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. The Homo heidelbergensis may have made this tool 15. Which mystery tool is made from a Levallois flake? Mystery tool (C) appears to be made from a Levallois flake 16. Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. The small size and material is what led me to identify this tool type 17. What tool technology does it belong to? Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. Which mystery tool is a blade? Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. What tool technology does it belong to? The Levallois flake belongs to the tool technology of stone knapping, and was used by Neandethals. The mystery tool (B) appears to be a blade. The features that led me to identify this tool type is its length and sharp edges. 18. Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. The Homo erectus may have made this tool Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS Review the mystery fossils in the pictures below and answer the following questions. 19. Which of these mystery fossils is H ​ omo neanderthalensis​? Mystery fossil (B) is Homo neaderthalensis 20. Which of these mystery fossils is​ Homo sapiens​? Mystery fossil (A) is Homo sapiens 21. Describe at least two traits you used to make these identifications. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. One trait that helped me identify the fossils is the distinct long and low face of fossil (B), and the second is the square eye sockets of fossil (A). Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C HOMO FLORESIENSIS 22. Compare the mystery fossil crania pictured and complete the chart below. Place an “X” in the appropriate column to indicate which mystery fossils have the traits listed. Note: A trait may be found in more than one mystery fossil. Mystery Fossil A Mystery Fossil B Mystery Fossil C Large cranial capacity Low cranium Presence of chin Large mandible X X 23. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is H ​ omo floresiensis? Fossil (B) is Homo floresiensis 24. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is H ​ omo sapiens​? Fossil (A) is Homo sapiens 25. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is an australopith? Fossil (C) is Homo australopith X X X X ...
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