hist 1003

hist 1003 - I. The Coming of War (WWI) a. People did not...

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I. The Coming of War (WWI) a. People did not know what to call it and did not know there would be 2 b. The 19 th century counted dead in the thousands i. There was no war between 1815 and 1914 that killed close to 100,000 people ii. 11 million people died in WWI iii. 50 million people died in WWII iv. In the aftermath of 11 million dead, each nation tried to claim it was not their fault c. This was going to be a long time of bad events i. There would be a great deal of soul searching d. The last time there was a war b/t 2 European powers was the Franco- Prussian War (45 years prior) e. This was the first time since 1815 (the Napoleon wars), that there had been a general European war (b/t 3 or more powers) f. 8 long term causes: i. Competitive State System 1. Europe had been a competitive state system 2. There were not states, like the U.S. 3. Also, many people spoke different languages and had a different culture a. These different cultures had banged up with each other enough times that war was inevitable ii. Nationalism 1. Thought of as white hot boiling patriotism 2. Belief that your country is better no matter what and that you will fight for it 3. Willing to fight for whatever their country said 4. Became secular, like religion a. Taught in childhood; ex: saying the Pledge of Allegiance iii. Trade rivalry 1. The Industrial Revolution made more for more people 2. B/c there are more things, there are more people selling the same thing and there is trade rivalry 3. In the last years before 1914, the 2 greatest trade rivalries were Great Britain and Germany a. The British hated being surpassed by Germany, but they felt Germany was not playing fair i. Ex: When doing business with Africa, Germans learned their language, while the British felt that
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everyone should learn English b. Periodically the Germans did play unfair i. Ex: They would stamp shoddy items “Made in the UK” iv. Imperialism – Creation of empires 1. France and Great Britain had the greatest empires 2. The Germans were late on this but they caught on in a hurry 3. France and Great Britain were fighting for the area where the Nile began; Fashoda a. Great Britain was going north and south and France was going east and west; they intersected at Fashoda 4. 1897, a French military leader, Marchand 5. Kitchener was a General for Great Britain 6. Both claimed Fashoda for their countries a. They almost went to war with each other b. Not much later, they signed the “Entente Cordiale” to resolve these disputes in the future v. Popular Journalism 1. Was impossible without 2 things: a. Mandatory public education i. Literacy went up ii. Not in Russia b. Rotary press i. Made the printing of newspapers and magazines cheaper 2. Cheapest of the newspapers were yellow, thus called “yellow journalism” 3. War and the threat of war sold papers a. If there weren’t any, make one up vi. Militarism 1. The belief in military 2. Every great power had a General Staff a. Planned for all situations in advance
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hist 1003 - I. The Coming of War (WWI) a. People did not...

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