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Unformatted text preview: I. 1789 French Revolution A. Second event to change everything i. Reformation was the first II. 18 th Century A. Was not i. A time when very many people could read or write a. The Enlightenment did not spread much because of this and it only affected a small percent of the population. ii. A period where the industrial revolution took off a. The industrial revolution doesn’t really take off until the invention of the railroad, which was the late 1820s. iii. No one expected the French Revolution B. Realities i. Demography (study of population) and weather a. Around 1300 or so, the climate of the northern hemisphere was warm, the population was large, and the ground grew fairly good crops. Then came a cooling period (1300-1850) 1. Mini Ice Age b. During the worst of the years, the temperature was 10 or so degrees below normal 1. The first freeze comes sooner and that means the loss of crops c. During the best, it was only a degree or two below normal d. There was not a lot of food e. 1709, was the worst year 1. Really cold and crops were awful f. After 1709, it got a little warmer g. Until after 1740 the harvest got better and it was warm enough for the population to grow. h. Below a certain level of nutrition, it was very hard for women to conceive 1. Nutrition rate was low so birth rate was low i. Raise it and birth rate goes up i. Also, when it’s cold more people die j. When you raise the temperature, you lower the death rate k. Population goes up l. Potato was introduced which has a larger yield than any other crop m. Needed more land so drained swamps which gave them more crop land and killed the mosquitos n. There was a low crop yield, but there was a lot more people o. 1775, was a bad crop year p. 1788, was a bad crop year ii. War a. Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia seemed to constantly be at war during the 18 th century. 1. They were Europe’s great powers b. 1700-13/14, the War of Spanish Succession 1. Last of Louis XIV’s wars c. 1720s, the War of Polish Succession d. 1740-48, the War of Austrian Succession e. 1756-63, 7 Years War (Austrian Succession 2) f. 1778- War of American Independence g. Wars cost money and lives (Treasure and blood) 1. Places a strain on government iii. Strain (effects of) a. Rulers who were choosing or forced to go to war, find it difficult to conduct these wars b/c of the strain it places on everyone b. Rulers in the 18 th century (good or not) tried to find new ways to deal with the strain 1. Easiest way to do this is to find a new source of revenue c. Peasants are already being taxed enough so rulers try to tax the nobles and the church, who were not being taxed 1. Nobles did not pay direct taxes 2. The privileged are going to have to start paying them 3. The problem is enforcing it C. The demographic/weather problem in 1788 and the problems with the nobles will place a big strain III. Great Britain A. Mary and William of Orange had no children so the throne went to her sister, Anne, who also did not have children so it went then to a...
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