COMD_2050_Study_Guide_Test_2[1]

COMD_2050_Study_Guide_Test_2[1] - COMD 2050 Study Guide...

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COMD 2050 Study Guide Test 2 Chapter 7: Grammar -know the different parts of speech: Nouns- words used to refer to people, objects, creatures, places, qualities, phenomena, and abstract ideas as if they were “things” Articles- words (a,an,the) used with nouns to form noun phrases classifying those “things”, or identifying them as already known Adjectives- words used, typically with nouns, to provide more information about the things referred to (HAPPY people, LARGE objects) Verbs- words used to refer to various kinds of actions (go,talk) and states (be, have) involving people and things in events Adverbs- words typically used to provide more information about actions, states, and events (slowly, yesterday). Some (really, very) are used with adj. to modify information about things Prepositions- words (at, in, on, near, with, without) used with nouns in phrases providing information about time, place, and other connections involving actions and things Conjunctions- words (and, but, because, when) used to make connections and indicate relationships between events -understand how agreement is used in grammar, ex: this use of tense, person, number, and voice Number- whether the noun is singular or plural Person- covers the distinctions of first person (the speaker, I), second person (the hearer, you), third person (any others, he, she, it) Tense- verb in present tense, is different from verbs in past tense Active voice- describing what the person does ( she performs the action) Passive voice- described what happens to the person ( they don’t perform the action) Gender- helps us describe the agreement between Cathy and her Natural Gender- derived from a biological distinction made in English between [female- she her] [male-he, his] [unknown- it, its] Grammatical gender- based on the type of noun (M or F) and is not tied to the biological sex -understand the different approaches to grammar. Ex: traditional analysis, prescriptive approach, Traditional Analysis- notion of appropriateness of analytical categories for a particular language has not been a consideration The prescriptive approach- view of grammar as a set of rules for the “proper” use of language is still to be found today The descriptive approach- analysts collected samples of the language they were interested in and attempted to describe the regular structures of the language as it was used, not according to some view of how it should be used Structural analysis- its main concern is to investigate the distribution of forms in a language (test frames) Constituent analysis- technique employed in this approach is designed to show how small constituents (or components) in sentences go together to form larger constituents Chapter 8: Syntax
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-Understand the key ideas of this chapter. For example, understanding the purpose of generative grammar, recursion, deep and surface structure, structural ambiguity… Generative grammar- small and finite set of rules is sometimes described as this. Can be
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COMD_2050_Study_Guide_Test_2[1] - COMD 2050 Study Guide...

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