PSYC mod4

PSYC mod4 - NeuralandHormonal Systems Module4 1...

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1 Neural and Hormonal  Systems Module 4
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____Phrenology____ 2
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3 Neural Communication The body’s information system is built from billions of  interconnected cells called  neurons
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4 Neural Communication Note similarity of brain regions involved with information processing of similar kind. Neurobiologists and other investigators understand  that information processing in humans and animals  operate similarly.
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5 Neuron  A nerve cell or a neuron consists of many different  parts.
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6 Parts of a Neuron  _Cell Body_______ Life support center of the neuron. ___Dendrites____ Branching extensions at the cell body.  Receives messages from other neurons. __Axon______ Long single extension of a neuron, covered  with  myelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath  to insulate and speed up  messages through neurons. ___Terminal Branches of Axon__ Branched ending of axons.  Transmitting messages to other neurons.
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7 Action Potential A neural impulse. A brief  electrical charge that travels  down an axon generated by  the movement of positively  charged atoms in and out of  channels in the axon’s  membrane. 
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8 __Threshold__  ___Threshold____ Each neuron receives  depolarizing and hyperpolarizing currents from  many neurons. When the depolarizing current  (positive ions) minus the hyperpolarizing current  (negative ions) exceed minimum intensity  (threshold) the neuron fires an action potential.
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9 __Refractory Period__:  After a neuron has fired an  action potential it pauses for a short period to  recharge itself to fire again. __Sodium-Potassium pumps_____:  Sodium- potassium pumps pump positive ions out from the  inside of the neuron, making them ready for another  action potential.
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10 ___Synapse___ __Synapse__ a   junction between the axon tip of the  sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the  receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the  synaptic  gap  or  cleft.
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11 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters  (chemicals) released from  the sending neuron, travel  across the synap se and  bind to receptor sites on  the receiving neuron,  thereby influencing it to  generate an action  potential. 
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12 Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the  synapse are reabsorbed  into the sending neurons  through the process of  reuptake. This process  applies brakes on  neurotransmitter action.
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Test yourself A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the: A.Synapse B.Agonist C.action potential D.refractory period 13
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14 How Neurotransmitters Influence Us __Serotonin___  pathways  are involved with mood  regulation.  From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989 University of California Press
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Dopamine Pathways Dopamine pathways are  involved with diseases 
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course PSYC 2000 taught by Professor Munson during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

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PSYC mod4 - NeuralandHormonal Systems Module4 1...

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