PSYC PWRPT notes jan21

PSYC PWRPT notes jan21 - Modules13 1 PsychologyToday...

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1 Introduction to the History  and Science of Psychology Modules 1 – 3 
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2 Psychology Today We define psychology today as the scientific  study of  _behavior_  (what we do) and _mental  processes___ (inner thoughts and feelings).
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3 Impression of Psychology  Hoping to satisfy curiosity, many people listen to  talk-radio counselors and psychics to know about  others and themselves. Dr. Crane (radio-shrink) h t t p : / / w w w . n b c . c o m h t t p : / / w w w . p h o t o v a u l t . c o m Psychic (Ball gazing)
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4 The Need for Psychological Science Intuition & Common Sense Many of us believe that intuition and common sense are  enough to bring forth answers about human nature. Although intuition and common sense may aid  queries, they are not free of error.
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5 Limits of Intuition Personal interviewers tend  to be overconfident of  their “gut feelings” about  job applicants. T a x i / G e t t y I m a g e s
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6 __Hindsight Bias__  is the “I-knew-it-all-along”  phenomenon.   We tend to believe, after learning about an outcome,  that we would have foreseen it. We knew that the  dot.com stocks would plummet, only after they did. Hindsight Bias
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7 ____Overconfidence_____ We tend to think we know  more than we actually do.  Anagram BARGE GRABE ENTRY ETYRN WATER WREAT How long do you think would  it take to unscramble these  anagrams? People said about 10 seconds.  On average they took about 3  minutes (Goranson, 1978).
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8 The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of  _curiosity__  (passion for exploration),  __skepticism__  (doubting and  questioning) and  __humility__  (humbleness to accept  when wrong).
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9 __Theory__  is   an explanation that integrates  principles, organizes and predicts behaviors or  events. For example, low self-esteem contributes to  depression. Theory
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10 __Hypothesis__  is a testable prediction, often  induced by a theory, to enable us to accept,  reject or revise the theory. People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more  depressed. Hypothesis
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11 __Research__  would require us to administer  tests of self esteem and depression to people.  Individuals who score low on self-esteem  measures and high on depression tests, would  confirm our hypothesis. Research Observations
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12 Research Process
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13 Research Strategies: How Psychologists  Ask and Answer Questions __Description__ The Case Study The Survey Naturalistic Observation ___Correlation___ Correlation and Causation Illusory Correlation Perceiving Order in Random Events
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14 Research Strategies: How Psychologists  Ask and Answer Questions __Experimentation__ Exploring Cause and Effect Evaluating Therapies Independent and Dependent Variables ___Statistical Reasoning__ Describing Data Making Inferences
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15 Description
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