Mod_21_22_moodle

Mod_21_22_moodle - 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Definition _Learning_ is a relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience. Learning thus is more _flexible_ , unlike genetically programmed behaviors of say, Chinooks. 3 How Do We Learn? We learn by _association_ Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence. Aristotle, 2000 years ago, suggested this law of association. Then 200 years ago Locke and Hume reiterated this law. 4 Stimulus-Stimulus Learning Learning to _associate_ one stimulus with another. 5 Stimulus-Stimulus Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another. 6 Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a _response_ with a _consequence_ . 7 Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 8 Ideas a of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories, however it was a Russian physiologist _Ivan Pavlov_ who elucidated classical conditioning. His work became seminal for later behaviorists like _John Watson_ and _B.F. Skinner_ Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Sovfoto 9 Pavlovs Experiments Before conditioning food (_Unconditioned Stimulus, US _ ) produces salivation ( _Unconditioned Response, UR_ ). The tone (neutral stimulus) does not. 10 Pavlovs Experiments During conditioning, neutral stimulus (tone) and US (food) are paired resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning neutral stimulus (now _Conditioned Stimulus_ , CS) elicits salivation (now _Conditioned Response_ , CR) 11 _Acquisition_ The initial stage in classical conditioning. during which association between a neutral stimulus and a US takes place. 1. Neutral stimulus needs to come before the US for conditioning to occur (most cases). 2. The time between the two stimuli should be about half a second. 12 _Extinction_ When a US (food) does not follow a CS (tone) CR (salivation) starts to decrease and at some point goes extinct. 13 _Spontaneous Recovery_ After a rest period an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers and if CS (tone) persists alone becomes extinct again. 14 _Stimulus Generalization_ Tendency to respond to stimuli...
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Mod_21_22_moodle - 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2...

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