Mod_29_30_moodle

Mod_29_30_moodle - 1 Thinking Module 29 2 _Thinking_...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Thinking Module 29 2 _Thinking_ Thinking or _cognition_ refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering and communicating. 3 _Cognitive Psychologists_ Thinking involves a number of mental activities listed below, and cognitive psychologists study them with great detail. 1. Concepts 2. Problem solving 3. Decision making 4. Judgment formation _Concepts_ Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of chair . 4 5 Category _Hierarchies_ We organize concepts into category hierarchies. C o u r t e s y o f C h r i s t i n e B r u n e 6 Development of Concepts We form some concepts by definitions, e.g., triangle has three side. But mostly we form concepts by a mental image or a best example ( _prototype_ ), e.g., robin is a prototype of a bird but penguin is not. Triangle (definition) Bird (mental image) D a n i e l J . C o x / G e t t y I m a g e s J . M e s s e r s c h m i d t / T h e P i c t u r e C u b e 7 Problem Solving There are two ways to solve problems: _Algorithms_ : Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. 8 Algorithms Algorithms exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. They take a long time. Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word, using an algorithm approach would take 907,208 possibilities. 9 _Hueristics_ Are simple thinking strategies that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Speedier but more error- prone than algorithms. B 2 M P r o d u c t i o n s / D i g i t a l V e r s i o n / G e t t y I m a g e s 10 Heuristics Heuristics make it easy for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems. S P L O Y O C H Y G S P L O Y O C H G Y P S L O Y O C H G Y P S Y C H O L O G Y Try putting Y at the end and see if the word starts to make sense. 11 _Insight_ Insight involves sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem. Insight is in humans and animals. Grande using boxes to obtain food 12 Obstacles in Solving Problems _Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias. 2 – 4 – 6 Rule: Any ascending series of numbers. 1 – 2 – 3 would comply. Ss had difficulty figuring out the rule due to confirmation bias (Wason, 1960). Which of the following is an example of the use of huerstics?...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course PSYC 2000 taught by Professor Munson during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

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Mod_29_30_moodle - 1 Thinking Module 29 2 _Thinking_...

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