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Mod_31_32_moodle - Introductionto Intelligence Module31 1...

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1 Introduction to  Intelligence Module 31
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2 What is Intelligence? _Intelligence_  (in all cultures) is the ability to learn  from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge  to adapt to  _new situations_ In research studies,  intelligence  is whatever the  intelligence tests measure … which tends to be  school smarts.
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3 Conceptual Difficulties Psychologists believe that intelligence is a  _concept  and not a “thing”_ When we think of intelligence as a trait (thing) we  commit to an error called  reification  — viewing an  abstract immaterial concept as if it were a concrete  thing.
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4 Controversies about Intelligence Despite general agreement among psychologists  about the nature of intelligence, there are two  controversies that remain: 1. Is intelligence a  _single overall ability_  or  several specific abilities? 2. With modern neuroscience techniques can  _we  locate_ and measure intelligence within the  brain?
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5 General Intelligence The idea that  _general intelligence (g)_ exists comes  from the work of Charles Spearman (1863-1945)  who helped develop the  _factor anaysis_  approach in  statistics. Athleticism, like intelligence, is many things
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6 General Intelligence Spearman proposed that  _general intelligence (g)_  is  linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by  factor analysis. For example, people who do well on vocabulary do  well on paragraph comprehension, a cluster that  helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors  include spatial ability factor a reasoning ability  factor.
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7 General Intelligence L. L. Thurstone, a critic of Spearman, analyzed his  subjects NOT on a single scale of general  intelligence, but on seven clusters of  _primary  mental abilities_   including: 1. Word Fluency 2. Verbal Comprehension 3. Spatial Ability 4. Perceptual Speed 5. Numerical Ability 6. Inductive Reasoning 7. Memory
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8 General Intelligence Later psychologists analyzed Thurstone’s data and  found a weak relationship between these clusters,  suggesting some evidence of a  g  factor.
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9 Contemporary Intelligence Theories _Howard Gardner_
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Mod_31_32_moodle - Introductionto Intelligence Module31 1...

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