Lecture 18-2011-summer-supplmented

Lecture 18-2011-summer-supplmented - Probability Can of...

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Big can of  marbles Probability Can of 1,000 marbles. 500 red, 500 blue. What is the probability of pulling out a red marble?
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Big can of  marbles Probability Can of 1,000 marbles. 800 red, 200 blue. What is the probability of pulling out a red marble?
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Big can of  marbles Probability Two cans of 1,000 marbles. Each contains 500 red, 500 blue. You pull one marble out of each can. What is the probability of pulling out two red marbles? Big can of  marbles
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Big can of  marbles Probability Two cans of 1,000 marbles. Each contains 800 red, 200 blue. You pull one marble out of each can. What is the probability of pulling out two red marbles? Big can of  marbles
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Genes, Populations, and Evolution Gregor Mendel His laws described how genes are transmitted from one generation to the next.
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Genes, Populations, and Evolution Charles Darwin Contemporary of Mendel’s. Described how variation in a population of organisms and natural selection could explain the evolution of species. Need to understand how genes behave in populations.
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Genes, Populations, and Evolution What drives changes in genes in a population? How do antibiotic-resistant microbes evolve? Is there a price to developing new traits?
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Genetics in populations Population : a group of interbreeding individuals of the same species, in the same place, at the same time. Different individuals in the population will carry different alleles. Gene pool : is the total of all alleles present in the population.
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Mendel’s laws explain the genotypes and phenotypes seen in individuals. Hardy-Weinberg laws explain the genotypes and phenotypes seen in a population.
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Hardy-Weinberg Law Model for understanding and predicting: Allele frequency -how often do different alleles (r or R) occur in the population. Phenotype frequency -how often do different phenotypes (disease [rr] vs. normal [Rr,RR]) occur in the population. Genotype frequency -what fraction of the population are RR, Rr, or rr.
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Allele frequency The proportion of genes in a population that are of given allele type (r or R). Consider a population of 100,000 people that have the following genotypes: 100 aa (albinos) 1800 Aa (normal) 98,100 AA (normal) What is the allele frequency of a and A?
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Allele frequency Count up all alleles of one type and divide by the total number of alleles. What is the frequency of a?
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Lecture 18-2011-summer-supplmented - Probability Can of...

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