Chapter_4_Marie - MARIE: An Introduction to a MARIE: Simple...

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1 CS 3401 Comp. Org. & Assembly Marie -- Chapter 4 1 MARIE: An Introduction to a MARIE: An Introduction to a Simple Computer Simple Computer CS 3401 Comp. Org. & Assembly Marie -- Chapter 4 2 Outline Outline Learn the components common to every modern computer system. Be able to explain how each component contributes to program execution. Understand a simple architecture invented to illuminate these basic concepts, and how it relates to some real architectures. Know how the program assembly process works. CS 3401 Comp. Org. & Assembly Marie -- Chapter 4 3 4.1 Introduction 4.1 Introduction Chapter 1 presented a general overview of computer systems. In Chapter 2, we discussed how data is stored and manipulated by various computer system components. Chapter 3 described the fundamental components of digital circuits. Having this background, we can now understand how computer components work, and how they fit together to create useful computer systems. CS 3401 Comp. Org. & Assembly Marie -- Chapter 4 4 4.2 CPU Basic and Organization 4.2 CPU Basic and Organization The computer’s CPU fetches, decodes, and executes program instructions. The two principal parts of the CPU are the datapath and the control unit . The datapath consists of an arithmetic-logic unit and storage units (registers) that are interconnected by a data bus that is also connected to main memory. Various CPU components perform sequenced operations according to signals provided by its control unit .
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CS 3401 Comp. Org. & Assembly Marie -- Chapter 4 5 4.2 CPU Basic and Organization 4.2 CPU Basic and Organization Registers hold data -- addresses, program counters, data -- that can be readily accessed by the CPU. Size of a register varies according to the design. The number of registers varies from architecture to architecture. They can be implemented using D flip-flops. A 32-bit register requires 32 D flip-flops. The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) carries out logical and arithmetic operations as directed by the control unit. The control unit determines which actions to carry out according to the values in a program counter register and a status register. CS 3401 Comp. Org. & Assembly Marie -- Chapter 4 6 4.3 The BUS 4.3 The BUS The CPU shares data with other system components by way of a data bus. A bus is a set of wires that simultaneously convey a single bit along each line. Two types of buses are commonly found in computer systems: point-to-point , and multipoint buses. This is a point-to-point bus configuration: CS 3401 Comp. Org. & Assembly Marie -- Chapter 4 7 4.3 The BUS 4.3 The BUS Buses consist of data lines , control lines , and address lines . While the data lines convey bits from one device to another, control lines determine the direction of data flow, and when each device can access the bus. Address lines determine the location
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course COMPUTER S 11111 taught by Professor Victoria during the Fall '10 term at University of Houston - Downtown.

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Chapter_4_Marie - MARIE: An Introduction to a MARIE: Simple...

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