geo - ch.9 notes

geo - ch.9 notes - Ch. 9 Page 1 Mountains mountains provide...

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Ch. 9 Page 1 Mountains mountains provide vivd evidence of tectonic activity Embody: Uplift Deformation Metamorphism Mountain Belts Mountains Frequently Occur: in elongate, linear belts Orogenesis: process where mountains are created by tectonic plate interactions Orogenic Belts Finite Lifespan of Mountains: Young Mountains - high - steep - growing upward Middle Age Mountains - dissected by erosion Old-Age Mountains - deeply eroded - often buried Deformation Deformation Strain → Geologic Structures 1
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Ch. 9 Page 2 Joints: fractures that have no offset Folds: layers that are bent over by slow plastic flow Faults: Fractures that are offset Foliation: planar metamorphic fabric Structural Geology: study of rock deformation Deformation Results in: Translation = change in location Rotation = change in orientation Distortion = change in shape Strain changes in shape caused by deformation stretching = pulling apart shortening = squeezing together shear = sliding past Deformation Types 2 major types brittle ductile 2
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Ch. 9 Page 3 Deformation type depends on: temperature pressure Brittle Deformation rocks break by fracturing occurs in shallow crust Ductile Deformation rocks deform by flow and folding occurs in deeper crust brittle ductile transition occurs at 10 to 15 km Causes of Deformation strain = result of deformation stress = causes deformation stress force per unit area acting on a rock Types of stress compressional = squeezing (covergent) tensional = pulling apart (divergent) shear = sliding past (transform) tectonic collision horizontal compression large scale most common type of deformation Stress Compression squeezing greater stress in 1 direction thickens material 3
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Ch. 9 Page 4 Extension pull apart greater stress in 1direction thins material fault scarp = exposed slip surface of a fault shear blocks of rock sliding past one another crust is not thickened or thinned Geologic Structures geologic structures geometric features created by deformation folds faults
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geo - ch.9 notes - Ch. 9 Page 1 Mountains mountains provide...

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