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CH9 PEERS, ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND LIFESTYLES Peers = individuals who are about the same age or maturity level o Important function: provide source of information about the world outside the family; receive feedback about their abilities; learn what they do compared to others o Peer interaction is influenced by contexts, include type of peer (acquaintance, crowd, clique, friend, romantic partner), situation/location where they are (school, neighborhood, community center, religious setting) o Individual differences among peers can affect peer relations: personality traits (shy/outgoing) o Boys/girls spend increasing amount of time in peer interaction during middle and late childhood and adolescence o Good peer relations might be necessary for normal social development in adolescence Social isolation; inability to plug in to social network, linked with many different forms of problems and disorders (delinquency/problem drinking/depression) o Peer influences can be both positive and negative (Piaget + Sullivan) it is through peer interaction that children and adolescents learn the symmetrical reciprocity mode of relationships: principles of fairness and justice by working through disagreements with peers Being rejected or overlooked by peers leads adolescents to feel lonely or hostile; related to individual’s mental health Time spent with antisocial peers was a stronger predictor of substance abuse than time spent with parents Higher levels of antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence were linked with higher rates of delinquent behavior in late adolescence Deviant peer affiliation related to adolescents’ depression Family-Peer linkages: some researchers have found that parents and adolescents perceive that parents have little authority over adolescents’ choices in some areas but more authority of choices in other areas. o (Judith Smetana) revealed that both parents and adolescents view peer relations as an areas that parents have little authority in o Evidence that adolescents live in a connected world with parents and peers, not a disconnected one. Parents’ choices of neighborhoods, churches, schools, and own friends influence Parents model/coach adolescents in ways of relating to peers Secure attachment to parents related to adolescent’s positive peer relations But parent-adolescent attachments are moderately correlated, so not entirely an accurate link Peer pressure: young adolescents conform more to peer standards than children do
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o US adolescents more likely than Japanese adolescents to put pressure on peers to resist parental influence o Adolescents who are uncertain about their social identity, appearing in form of low self-esteem and high social anxiety, are most likely to conform to peers Uncertainty increases during school/family transitions o Peers more likely to conform when in presence of someone they perceive to have higher status than them Peer status: o Sociometric status – extent to which children and adolescents are liked/disliked
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 333 taught by Professor Dickson during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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