toothdecay - makes it an energy-rich molecule. Under...

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Specifically, it is a single ingredient - phosphoric acid - that takes calcium out of the bones. Calcium is removed from the body by phosphoric acid, and the calcium we lose ultimately comes from our bones." Tooth decay. The acid in vomit can hurt teeth by corroding tooth ename Ordinary tooth enamel is hydroxyapatite, Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6(s). If low concentrations of fluoride ion are added to the diets of children, then a substantial amount of the tooth enamel formed will consist of fluorapatite, Ca10F2(PO4)6(s), which is much harder and less affected by acidic substances than hydroxyapatite. Consequently, fluorapatite is more resistant to tooth decay than is hydroxyapatite The energy requirements for many biochemical reactions are supplied by a substance called adenosine triphosphate, or simply ATP (Figure N.9). The chain of three phosphate groups in ATP
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Unformatted text preview: makes it an energy-rich molecule. Under physiological conditions, the reaction of one mole of ATP with water to produce adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a hydrogen phosphate ion releases 31 kilojoules of energy. This energy is used by all living species to drive biochemical reactions. We can represent the reaction of ATP with water schematically by ATP(aq) + H2O(l ) ADP(aq) + HPO4^2(aq) Adenosine diphosphate is converted into ATP by the biochemical oxidation of food molecules. The ATP is then available to supply energy for muscular activity, synthesis of proteins and other biochemical molecules, production of nerve signals, and other biological activity. In other words, ATP is a biological fuel....
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