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MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 8.044 Statistical Physics I Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms .

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Composite Particles Composite Fermions and Composite Bosons Count the number of sign changes as all the con- stituents are interchanged Well defined statistics (F-D or B-E) as long as the internal degrees of freedom are not excited 8.044 L30B1
The constitutents of nuclei and atoms are e, p & n . Each has S = 1 / 2. N even even # of exchanges. ψ (+) ψ B-E also N even integer spin N odd odd # of exchanges. ψ ( ) ψ F-D also N odd half-integer spin 8.044 L30B2

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Particle Nuclear Spin Electrons Statistics 1 H (H 1 ) 2 1 B-E D (H 2 ) 1 1 F-D 1 T (H 3 ) 2 1 B-E 1 He 3 2 2 F-D He 4 0 2 B-E Li 6 1 3 F-D Li 7 3 2 3 B-E H 2 0 or 1 2 B-E x 2 integer () × 2 B-E 8.044 L30B3
Let α ( s ) , β ( s ) , · · · be single particle wavefunctions. r, r, A product many-particle wavefunction, α (1) β (2), does not work.

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