09architecting

09architecting - Architecting Designing Air Transportation...

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Architecting & Designing Air Transportation Systems Prof. John-Paul Clarke Massachusetts Institute of Technology 16.899 March 4, 2004
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Regulation Corporate strategy Competition Market Data Market Strategy Technology System architecture needs goals function +constraints form timing operator Training Outbound marketing strategy, Sales, Distribution Manufacturing, Operations, Illities* Why ? Purpose What ? Performance Requirements How ? Behavior Where? Structure When? Action Who? Users Customer(s) can be concept System Architecture Framework Source: Crawley and de Weck *Reliability, Servicability, Environmental Impact, Upgradeability, Flexibility,etc…
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What is architecture? ± Logical and physical embodiment of a system ± Mechanism that È Shapes the functional and physical boundaries of the system È Governs the behavior and structure of the system
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Why is architecture important? ± The “right” architecture can: È Maximize system robustness È Maximize system flexibility È Minimize system complexity È Enable desirable behavior È Deter undesirable behavior ± Example(s): È An electrical circuit breaker limits the undesirable behavior that would result from a surge in the supply voltage
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How do we determine architecture? ± Synthesis ± Discovery ± Chance
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Synthesis ± Combining existing systems to satisfy stated needs ± Requires logic and complete (or near complete) knowledge of existing systems ± Example(s): È Designing a mechanism to support a person who wants to cross “over” a river or stream
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Key question(s) for synthesis? ± What functions do I need to get the job done? ± Is there a way to combine existing systems to do the desired functions without having too many extra functions and too much extra form? ± What rules do I have to apply to do this?
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Discovery ± Using knowledge of existing architecture to “discover” new architecture ± Requires knowledge of existing systems and pattern recognition, analysis and abstraction skills ± Example(s): È Man learning how to fly È Disease and drug pathways
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Key question(s) for discovery? ± Is there some analogous system in another domain? ± What are the properties of a given architecture that makes it perform so well (or poorly)? ± Are there similar (or better) ways to perform those functions?
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Chance ± Observing “nature” and recognizing “events” ± Requires pattern recognition skills and lots of luck ± Example(s): È Discovery of synthetic rubber È First “cave woman” to observe that two rocks struck together produces fire
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Key question(s) for chance? ± What activity should I be doing to maximize the likelihood of a concept developing? È Should I be drinking coffee at Starbucks of tinkering in the lab?
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Are they mutually exclusive? ± No! ± Most of the processes we use to determine architecture combine the three approaches ± Example(s): È Chance->Discovery->Synthesis È Synthesis->Discovery&Chance
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How do I know the best architecture?
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09architecting - Architecting Designing Air Transportation...

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