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01010wk1_framing - Space System Architecture Lecture 1...

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Space System Architecture Lecture 1: Space Systems and Definitions Framing Document by Annalisa Weigel Required reading: a) Framing document (01010 week_1 framing.pdf) b) ESD Architecture document (01020_ESD_Sys_Arch.pdf) c) Rectin & Maier – Chaps 1 & 2 (01030Rechtin_and_Maier_Ch_1_2.pdf) d) Dave Clark on Internet Architecture (01031 NatureOfArch-1.pdf) e) Maier on System of Systems: Mark W. Maier, “Architecting principles for systems-of-systems,” Systems Engineering , Vol. 1, No. 4, pp 267-284, 1998. (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/40003635/ABSTRACT) f) Sage & Lynch on System Views: Andrew. P. Sage and Charles L. Lynch, “Systems integration and architecting: An overview of principles, practices, and perspectives,” Systems Engineering , Vol. 1, No. 3, pp 176-227, 1998. (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/30002173/ABSTRACT). g) Iridium Trades: Garrison, T. P., M. Ince, J. Pizzicaroli, and P. A. Swan, “System Engineering Trades for the IRIDIUM Constellation,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets , Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 675-680, 1997. http://www.aiaa.org/journals/index.cfm?addI=1&PubVolIssue=00224650_v34n5 h) NASA new design paradigm; Golden, Daniel S., Samuel, L. Venneri, and Ahmed K. Noor, “New frontiers in design synthesis,” Acta Astronautica , Volume 44, Issues 7-12, pp. 407-418, April-June 1999, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00945765 Recommended reading: i) History of US MILSATCOM: Donald H. Martin, “A History of U.S. Military Satellite Communication Systems,” Crosslink, Vol. 3, No. 1, Winter 2001/2002. http://www.aero.org/publications/crosslink/winter2002/01.html; see also http://www.losangeles.af.mil/SMC/MC/milsatcom.html j) GPS site: http://gps.losangeles.af.mil/ k) GPS primer: http://www.aero.org/publications/GPSPRIMER/index.html This framing document is divided into three parts. The first will present different definitions of the word “architecture,” and discuss the notion of different views one can take on an architecture. The second part overviews the three different space communities: commercial, civil and military. The third part contains descriptions of space architectures, and concludes by reviewing different classes of space missions and their typical architectures.
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Part 1 Definition of Architecture There are many different definitions of the word architecture, and which definition is most appropriate in any situation is largely context-specific. To start, Webster’s Dictionary states architecture is a “formation or construction as or as if as the result of conscious act,” or “a unifying or coherent form or structure.” 1 From a product development perspective, Ulrich and Eppinger offer that an architecture is an “arrangement of the functional elements into physical blocks.” 2 From a mechanical systems design perspective, Frey suggests architecture is the “structure, arrangements or configuration of system elements and their internal relationships necessary to satisfy constraints and requirements.” 3 Looking across different types of products and systems, Crawley thinks architecture is the “embodiment of concept, and the allocation of
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