l3_scpowersys_dm_done2

l3_scpowersys_dm_done2 - Spacecraft Power Systems David W....

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Spacecraft Power Systems David W. Miller John Keesee
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Electrical Power System Power Source Energy Storage Power Distribution Power Regulation and Control EPS
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Power Sources Primary Batteries Radioisotope Secondary Battery Thermionic converter Fuel cell Thermoelectric converter Regenerative fuel cell Photovoltaic Chemical dynamic Solar dynamic Nuclear Flywheel Storage Electrodynamics Tethers Propulsion-charged tether
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Power Source Applicability FUEL CELL CHEMICAL DYNAMIC (APUs) HOURS LOAD POWER (kW) NUCLEAR NUCLEAR THERMIONICS SOLAR DYNAMIC AND PHOTOVOLTAIC NUCLEAR THERMIONIC OR SOLAR DYNAMIC PHOTOVOLTAIC OR ISTOTOPE - THERMOELECTRIC MONTHS YEARS PRIMARY BATTERIES 1DAY 0.1 0.1 1 10 100 1 12 2 4 6 8 1 0 36 12 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 DAYS Approximate ranges of application of different power sources.
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Design Space for RTGs 5-Year Design Life % of Original Power Years 50 0 100 11 0 8 7 The 87-year half-life of Pu-238 results in 96% of the original heat output even after five years Electric - Power Level (kW) Duration of Use 10 MIN 1 HOUR 1 DAY 1 MONTH 1 YEAR 10 YEARS Chemical 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 Radioisotopes Nuclear reactors Solar
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Primary Battery Types Silver zinc Lithium sulfur dioxide Lithium carbon monofluoride Lithium thionyl chloride Energy density (W h/kg) 130 220 210 275 Energy density (W h/dm 3 ) 360 300 320 340 Op Temp (deg C) 0-40 -50 – 75 ? – 82 -40 – 70 Storage Temp (deg C) 0±–30 0±–50 0±–10 Storage Life 30-90 days wet, 5 yr dry 10 yr 2 yr 5 yr Open circuit voltage(V/cell) 1.6 3.0 3.0 3.6 Discharge voltage(V/cell) 1.5 2.7 2.5 3.2 Manufacturers Eagle Pitcher, Yardley Honeywell, Power Conver Eagle Pitcher Duracell, Altus, ITT
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Silver Zinc Cells • Wide use in industry • High energy density, high discharge rate capability, fast response • Short lifetime • Vent gas during discharge • Potentially rechargeable but few cycles
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Lithium cells • Higher energy density than silver zinc • Wide temperature range • Low discharge rate (high internal impedance) – Rapid discharge may cause rupture • Slow response
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Secondary Battery Types Silver zinc Nickel cadmium Nickel hydrogen Energy density (W h/kg) 90 35 75 Energy density (W h/dm 3 ) 245 90 60 OperTemp±(deg±C) 0±–20 0±–20 0±–40 Storage Temp (C) 0 – 30 0 – 30 0 – 30 Dry Storage life 5 yr 5 yr 5 yr Wet Storage life 30 – 90 days 2 yr 2 yr Max cycle life 200 20,000 20,000 Open circuit (V/cell) 1.9 1.35 1.55 Discharge (V/cell) 1.8 – 1.5 1.25 1.25 Charge (V/cell) 2.0 1.45 1.50 Manufacturers Eagle- Pitcher,Yardney Technical Prod Eagle-Pitcher, Gates Aerospace Batteries Eagle-Pitcher, Yardney, Gates, Hughes
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Nickel Cadmium Cells • Long space heritage • High cycle life, high specific energy • Relatively simple charge control systems • Battery reconditioning necessary to counteract reduction in output voltage after 3000 cycles
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Nickel Hydrogen Cells • Potentially longer life than NiCads – Hydrogen gas negative electrode eliminates
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course AERO 16.851 taught by Professor Ldavidmiller during the Fall '03 term at MIT.

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l3_scpowersys_dm_done2 - Spacecraft Power Systems David W....

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