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crimsonteam - STS.471/16.895/ESD.30 Engineering Apollo...

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STS.471/16.895/ESD.30 Engineering Apollo Crimson Team Final Report May 16 th , 2007 Architecture Friedman Gay Leybovich Yamamoto GNC Baker Brunet Houghton Human Factors Brzezinski Graham Needham Operations Bachmann Fanchiang Gillespie Panish
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i Table of Contents List of Figures . ................................................................................................................................ ii List of Tables . ................................................................................................................................ iii List of Acronyms . .......................................................................................................................... iv Introduction . .................................................................................................................................... 1 Scope . .......................................................................................................................................... 2 Goals . .......................................................................................................................................... 2 Assumptions . ............................................................................................................................... 2 Lunar Landing Procedure Overview . .............................................................................................. 3 The Apollo Lunar Landing Procedure . ....................................................................................... 3 Team Crimson Lunar Landing Procedure . .................................................................................. 4 Baseline Lunar Architecture: ESAS LSAM . .................................................................................. 6 Initial Mass Estimate. ...................................................................................................................... 8 Components of the Lunar Modules. ................................................................................................ 9 Propulsion . .................................................................................................................................. 9 Communication . ........................................................................................................................ 13 Navigation . ................................................................................................................................ 14 Structures . ................................................................................................................................. 14 Other Systems . .......................................................................................................................... 16 Improvements from Apollo Structure . ...................................................................................... 16 Guidance, Navigation, and Control . ............................................................................................. 16 Navigation . ................................................................................................................................ 19 Guidance . .................................................................................................................................. 20 Controller . ................................................................................................................................. 20 Trajectory and Approach . ............................................................................................................. 22 Human Factors . ............................................................................................................................. 23 Automation . .............................................................................................................................. 24 Crew Roles . ............................................................................................................................... 26 Interfaces . .................................................................................................................................. 28 Training . .................................................................................................................................... 31 The Role of Mission Control . ....................................................................................................... 32 Abort Procedures . ......................................................................................................................... 33 Abort Initiation. ......................................................................................................................... 35 Go/No Go Decision. .................................................................................................................. 36 Baseline Cost Estimate . ................................................................................................................ 37 Conclusion . ................................................................................................................................... 39 Appendix A: Human Factors . ....................................................................................................... 41 Appendix B: Mass Breakdown . .................................................................................................... 43 Appendix C: References . .............................................................................................................. 44
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ii List of Figures Figure 1- Comparison between the Apollo lunar landing (black) and the Team Crimson lunar landing (red) . ........................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 2 - LSAM Architecture . ....................................................................................................... 7 Figure 3 - Mass breakdown of LSAM descent stage dry mass [22]………………………………8 Figure 4 - Schematics showing equilibrium between propellant pressure and in-wall stresses. ...15 Figure 5 - Guidance, Navigation and Control System Overview . ................................................ 18 Figure 6 - Navigation System Overview . ..................................................................................... 19 Figure 7 - Guidance System Overview . ........................................................................................ 20 Figure 8 - Control System Overview . ........................................................................................... 21 Figure 9 - Orbital Trajectory . ........................................................................................................ 22 Figure 10 - Yerkes-Dodson curve and Apollo comic illustrating the two extremes of possible astronaut involvement in controlling a space capsule. . ......................................................... 25 Figure 11 - Sheridan’s 10 Levels of Automation of Decision [44] with the human functions and roles in landing the lunar lander. ........................................................................................... 25 Figure 12 - Cockpit configuration of displays for the landing pilot (left seat) and systems pilot (right seat). . ........................................................................................................................... 30 Figure 13 - Abort procedures for different phases of the lunar landing . ...................................... 34 Figure 14 - Comparison of Apollo Costs to Exploration Vision . ................................................. 38 Figure 15 - Costs based on data from Georgia Tech. . .................................................................. 39 Figure 16 - Photograph of the "dials and gages" of the Apollo Lunar Module. . .......................... 41 Figure 17 - Layout of the Apollo Lunar Module interfaces. . ........................................................ 41 Figure 18 - Preliminary Lunar Access H-SI Concept . .................................................................. 42
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iii List of Tables Table 1 - Propellant Choices . .......................................................................................................... 9 Table 2- Comparison between possible space structural materials in terms of specific strength and CTE [31, 32]. .................................................................................................................. 14 Table 3 - Comparison of the propellant and payload masses and their fractions to the total mass of Apollo and Crimson descent stage. . ................................................................................. 16
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iv List of Acronyms BIT………………………………… Built in Test CEV………………………………. .. Crew Exploration Vehicle CommPro…………………………. . Communications Procedure Crewmember CRM………………………………. Crew Resource Management CTE…………………………….…. . Coefficient of Thermal Expansion DSN………………………………. . Deep Space Network ECL……………………………….
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crimsonteam - STS.471/16.895/ESD.30 Engineering Apollo...

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