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grayteam - Apollo Gray Team Lunar Landing Design Final...

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Apollo Gray Team Lunar Landing Design - Final Report - May 16, 2007 System Architecture Bryan Gardner Wilfried Hofstetter Ryan McLinko Human Factors Tatsuya Arai Melanie Chin Elizabeth Deems Jaime Mateus Guidance, Navigation & Control Lucy Cohan Swati Mohan Rebecca Myers Ben Renkoski Operations Phillip Cunio Christine Edwards Carl Engel Zahra Khan Apollo Gray Lunar Landing Design 5/16/2007 1
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Table of Contents Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................... 2 List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... 4 List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. 5 Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................... 6 Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................... 6 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 6 2. Systems Architecture .............................................................................................................. 7 2.1 Review of Lunar Landing Concepts ................................................................................ 7 2.2 Reference Lunar Lander Design ................................................................................... 10 2.3 Systems Architecture Summary .................................................................................... 13 3. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) ........................................................................ 14 3.1 Trajectory .......................................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Hardware .......................................................................................................................... 17 3.2.1 Sensors ......................................................................................................................... 17 3.2.2 Actuators ...................................................................................................................... 18 3.2.3 Apollo Hardware Comparison ..................................................................................... 18 3.3 Control and Estimation ................................................................................................... 19 3.3.1 Control Architecture and Comparison to Apollo ......................................................... 19 3.3.2 Control Architecture Flow ........................................................................................... 19 3.4 Simulation and Results ................................................................................................... 20 3.4.1 Simulation Formulation ............................................................................................... 20 3.4.2 Simulation Control Architecture .................................................................................. 21 3.4.2 Simulation Results ....................................................................................................... 21 3.4.3 Monte Carlo Analysis and Results ............................................................................... 22 3.5 GNC Summary and Conclusions .................................................................................. 23 4. Human Factors ....................................................................................................................... 23 4.1. Lunar Lander Control ..................................................................................................... 24 4.1.1 Design Requirements ................................................................................................... 24 4.1.2 Number of Crew Members in the Control Loop .......................................................... 24 4.1.3 Supervisory Control ..................................................................................................... 24 4.1.4 Task Areas and Crewmember Responsibilities ........................................................... 25 4.1.5. External Cameras ........................................................................................................ 25 4.2. Display Design ................................................................................................................ 26 4.2.1 Landing Display ........................................................................................................... 26 4.2.2 Situational Awareness Display .................................................................................... 27 4.2.3 Systems Status Display ................................................................................................ 28 4.2.4 Window ........................................................................................................................ 28 4.3. Interior Design and Anthropometry .............................................................................. 28 4.3.1. Total Volume .............................................................................................................. 28 4.3.2. Cockpit Anthropometry .............................................................................................. 28 4.3.3 Input devices ................................................................................................................ 29 4.3.4. Life Support Systems .................................................................................................. 29 4.4. Crew Selection and Training ........................................................................................ 30 4.4.1 Crew Selection ............................................................................................................. 30 Apollo Gray Lunar Landing Design 5/16/2007 2
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4.4.2 Crew Training .............................................................................................................. 30 4.4.3 Workload and Situational Awareness Testing ............................................................. 32 5. Operations ............................................................................................................................... 33 5.1 Introduction to Operations .............................................................................................. 33 5.2 Nominal Landing Operations ......................................................................................... 33 5.3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis ............................................................................. 34 5.4 Flight Rules ....................................................................................................................... 36 5.5 Abort Procedures ............................................................................................................. 36 5.6 Impact of Technological Developments ....................................................................... 37 5.7 Mission Control and Public Impact ............................................................................... 37 6. Conclusions ............................................................................................................................ 38 7. Annotated References .......................................................................................................... 40 7.1 Systems Architecture References ................................................................................ 40 7.2 Guidance, Navigation & Control .................................................................................... 41 7.3 Human Factors ................................................................................................................. 44 7.4 Operations ........................................................................................................................ 45 8. Appendices ............................................................................................................................. 48 8.1 System Architecture Appendices .................................................................................. 48 8.1.1 Lunar Lander Concepts ................................................................................................ 48 8.1.2 Lunar Mission Modes .................................................................................................. 49 8.1.3 Lunar Landing Morphological Matrix ......................................................................... 50 8.1.4 Lunar Lander Concept Comparisons ........................................................................... 52 8.2 GN&C Appendices .......................................................................................................... 53 8.2.1 Hardware Comparisons ................................................................................................ 53 8.3 Human Factors Tables and Figures ............................................................................. 55 8.4 Operations Team Appendices ....................................................................................... 62 8.4.1 Full Nominal Procedure ............................................................................................... 62 8.4.2 Failure Modes & Effects Analysis Results .................................................................. 65 8.4.3 Flight Rules .................................................................................................................. 69 Apollo Gray Lunar Landing Design 5/16/2007 3
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List of Figures Figure 1. Ladder ............................................................................................................................ 10 Figure 2. Cargo ............................................................................................................................. 10 Figure 3. Propulsion System ......................................................................................................... 11 Figure 4. Ascent Stage Structure .................................................................................................. 11 Figure 5. Descent Stage Structure ................................................................................................. 12 Figure 6. 3D Printout of Lander ................................................................................................... 12 Figure 7. Gray Team reference lander design configurations for different use cases .................. 13 Figure 8. Descent trajectory: Attitude versus Range .................................................................... 16 Figure 9. Final Trajectory Phase: Altitude versus Range ............................................................. 16 Figure 10. Block Diagram of Control Architecture ...................................................................... 19 Figure 11. Simulation Overview ................................................................................................... 20 Figure 12. GNC Simulation Results ............................................................................................. 21 Figure 13. Trajectory Simulation Close-up: left is strong random noise, right is strong bias
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