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ling[1] - /l and/r are different sounds in English but not...

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Some Basic Linguistics Terminology 1. Syntax - rules which govern word order and possible sentence formation in a language. Some languages (like English) are Subj-Verb-Object; Chinese and Urdu tend to be Subject – Object – Verb; Urdu can also be Object-Verb-Subject. Where adjectives are placed (before or after nouns) is another element of syntax 2. Phonetics - study of the physical properties of sounds of language (where they are made in the mouth, whether they are voiced or not, etc. ..) Short vowel sounds are hard for speakers of some languages; Arabic does not have /p/ (that is to say, a voiceless bilabial stop) 3. Phonology - the sound rules of language, for example, which sounds can change meaning and where sounds can appear in a word, as well as how sounds are pronounced in different contexts. Walked/ begged (‘ed’ pronounced differently depending on end sound of base word) /s/ pronounced differently depending on end sound of base word.
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Unformatted text preview: /l/ and /r/ are different sounds in English but not in Korean Accents are the result of applying different phonological rules to one’s pronunciation. 4. Morphology - rules for possible word formation. In English, we often change parts of speech by adding suffixes; past tense is usually made by adding 'ed'. (How this ending is pronounced is a phonological rule) Un f***** believable! (there’s a rule for where you can add this, or ‘infix’ it) Record ing /record er (what can we add to a verb to make it a noun?) 5. Semantics - rules of meaning; which words mean what, and how is meaning determined? Think about vocabulary differences in different dialects of your language. 6. Pragmatics - Rules governing the social functions of language ('How are you?'). For example, when we say 'let's get together', what does it mean? When my husband wants to get off the phone, he says ‘Okay’ and then begins saying goodbye....
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