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Ch 18 (The Outer Planets)

Ch 18 (The Outer Planets) - Chapter 18 Comparative...

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Comparative Planetology of the Outer Planets Chapter 18:
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In this chapter we will answer the following questions. What are very massive planets like? What evidence indicates that some moons have been active? How are planetary rings formed and maintained? How do the less massive Jovian worlds differ from their more massive cousins? Is Pluto a planet or something else?
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A Travel Guide to the Outer Planets Hydrogen-rich atmospheres belt-zone circulation shallow atmospheres interiors mostly liquid hydrogen Large satellite systems
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18-1 Travel Guide to the Outer Planets Size Diameter of Jupiter is over 11 times the diameter of Earth. Saturn slightly smaller than Jupiter. Uranus and Neptune quite a bit smaller than Jupiter. Pluto is tiny (smaller than Earth).
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Rings All of the Jovian planets have rings. Saturn’s rings are the most extensive. They are composed of billions of ice particles. Atmospheres and Interiors All four Jovian planets have hydrogen rich atmospheres filled with clouds. These clouds form belts and zones that you can see on Jupiter and Saturn. We call the circulation that forms these belts & zones belt-zone circulation .
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Atmospheres & Interiors Shallow atmospheres. Below their atmospheres, Jupiter and Saturn are composed of liquid hydrogen. Only near their centers are they solid (rock and metal). Uranus and Neptune called the ice giants because they have a lot of water (liquid and solid).
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Satellite Systems The Jovian planets have many moons. As apposed to their planets, they have solid surfaces you could land on. Some of the moons are geologically active.
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18-2 Jupiter Largest and most massive planet in the solar system: Contains almost 3/4 of all planetary matter in the solar system. Most striking features visible from Earth: Multi-colored cloud belts Visual image Infrared false- color image
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Jupiter’s Interior From radius and mass Average density of Jupiter ≈ 1.34 g/cm 3 => Jupiter can not be made mostly of rock, like earthlike planets. Jupiter consists mostly of hydrogen and helium. Due to the high pressure, hydrogen is compressed into a liquid, and even metallic state. T ~ 30,000 K
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Under high pressure, liquid hydrogen becomes liquid metallic hydrogen – a very good conductor of electricity. A lot of Jupiter consists of liquid metallic hydrogen. Convection currents stir this liquid metallic hydrogen and the Jupiter’s rotation spins it, creating a strong magnetic field (10 times stronger than Earth’s) due to the the dynamo effect. Jupiter’s strong magnetic field is responsible for the auroras (glowing light display) near the north and south poles.
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Aurorae on Jupiter Just like on Earth, Jupiter’s magnetosphere produces aurorae concentrated in rings around the magnetic poles. ~ 1000 times more powerful than aurorae on Earth.
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Jupiter’s Magnetic Field Discovered through observations of decimeter (radio) radiation Magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than Earth’s magnetic field.
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