Power: Interpersonal, Organizational, and Global Dimensions Wednesday, 09 November 2005 TOPIC: Power institutionalized. Review from last time•transformation in system of power – from control over bodies to control over minds and eventually to control over space •the shifts of authority that go with this movement from body to mind to space •shift from exclusion to discipline/normalization to governmenality/freedom to enter space and self-governance Summary of what we know so far about power•power as multiplicity of forcesorganized through structured (patterned) interactions •omnipresent– there is nothing that is not a power relation; power is everywherebut is not the same everywhere - the point is to specify the variation and the kinds and distributions of power •produced (exercised) from one moment to next at every point in every relationship •not exterior to other forms of interaction •exercised from below as well as above •no absolute binary opposition of power and powerlessness (Simmel), power as intercursive(Wrong) •exercise of power forms cleavages that run throughout society •power isintentional – somewhere in the scheme (though sometimes far away) there is human intention and we have to trace it from the bottom all the way to the center – it is intelligible and knowable even if no longer of/ in an individual mind; •power is also institutionalized so that intentions have been buried deep in the past, far from the surface, accumulated and layered •for Foucault, like Simmel, wherever there is power there is the possibility of resistance •we should not look for stable unchanging power structures, but notice the shifting modifications and shifts in distributions and appropriations •re-invented and re-played over and over again – our task is to see how this happens Thus far in this course, we’ve talked about concepts of power, relationships of power, and the theories to explain power distributions... Our preliminary definition (Dennis Wrong) is that power is to produce intended and foreseen effects. This definition now needs to be elaborated: We have learned that power is not located solely in interpersonal relations but that these relations draw from larger environmental and organizational structures. Power is exercised by individuals with resources that are institutionalized (sedimented) in groups, communities, and organizations. We must look at these structures/institutionalization of power (what Foucault said when he said the ways of human control had shifted from body to mind to space). definition #1 [micro]: intended, foreseen effects on others (person to person) definition #2 [macro]: how institutions structure those micro interactions, how possibilities of exercising power are constrained or enabled by something larger (beyond, 11/09/05, page 1 of 6
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