MIT21A_226F09_lec07

MIT21A_226F09_lec07 - Sept. 30, 2009 7 ETHNICITY, STATE,...

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Sept. 30, 2009 7 ETHNICITY, STATE, NATION Read: Eriksen, 2002. Ethnic identity and ideology: 59-77, Ethnicity in history: 78-96 David Maybury-Lewis, 2002. Ethnic groups: 47-79 I. Today we’ll discuss A. Pre-modern and modern 1. Differences and similarities between national states of the modern era and earlier formations 2. Review how nationalism/nations developed B. We’ll continue to review nationalism and the role of ethnic identity II. Pre-modern period A. Tribes 1. DISCUSS : What do you think of when you hear this word? a. “Other” b. Exotic 1) Examples from the movies? 2. Tribal societies have classically been seen as: a. Small-scale (not large populations) b. With their interaction structured around: 1) Kinship networks and face-to-face interaction 3. “Tribal” is an anthropological classification, although a problematic one a. Pre-modern, small-scale unit applied to three types of subsistence modes 1) Hunter-gatherers 2) Horticulturalists 7 Ethnicity, State, Nation Eriksen, Maybury-Lewis 2009 1/19/10
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2 a) Subsistence mode lacking the plow and draft animals b) Note that horticulturalist societies can in fact be very large—some African kingdoms an example 3) Nomadic pastoralists B. “Tribal” societies characterized by these subsistence modes are contrasted with the great pre-modern dynastic states 1. Which were characterized by an agrarian subsistence mode, the fourth: plow and draft animals a. “The fertile crescent”: Babylonia, etc. were agrarian 2. Some pre-modern states were horticulturalist a. New World (Aztec, Maya, Inca) 3. In general these great ancient states developed where water was scarce (exception: Maya) a. One hypothesis (overly simple) argues that civilizations developed in arid zones because there was a need to organize to develop the technology that allowed for optimal water distribution b. As well as develop a socio-political organization that ensured an appropriate distribution c. More familiar: feudal agrarian states in Europe 4. These states weren’t integrated nationally a. Their subjects were locally integrated, under the rule of a member of the nobility who collected tribute b. Socialization and social control were largely handled locally c. Armies tended to be professional, without the ideology of “moral duty of all to fight for their country” we find in nations 5. Compared with modern nation-states these earlier dynastic states a. Placed few demands on the majority of their citizens
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3 1) Note: oppression, exploitation could be brutal a) Building Egyptian, Mayan pyramids 2) But few demands on them as citizens —not much state bureaucracy b. No nation-building was needed because the boundaries were always shifting, no sense of a need to have populations within the borders share a culture, language 1) The subject populations just needed to be loyal to the rulers, pay taxes, consent to be conscripted as labor (e.g., road-building), etc. c.
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MIT21A_226F09_lec07 - Sept. 30, 2009 7 ETHNICITY, STATE,...

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