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MIT21A_226F09_lec16 - Nov 2 2009 16 ETHNIC IDENTITY STATE...

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Nov. 2, 2009 16: ETHNIC IDENTITY, STATE, AND SEXUALITY Read: Nagel, 2003. Sex and nationalism: sexually imagined communities Stoler, Ann, 1991. Carnal knowledge and imperial power: gender, race and morality in colonial Asia Heng and Devan, J 1995 State fatherhood: the politics of nationalism, sexuality, and race in Singapore I. Introduction A. How are ethnicity/race/nationalism and gender/sexuality linked? 1. Manliness and womanliness are racialized, ethnicized and nationalized a. And sexuality, of course, figures in such images of manliness and womanliness B. Common stereotypes used to depict “us” and “them”? 1 1. Positive and negative: hardworking/lazy, clean/dirty; pure/dirty; rational/emotional; smart/stupid; reliable/undependable; moral/immoral; modest and virtuous/vulgar and promiscuous 2. These oppositions often involve gender and sexuality: potent and impotent men; proper and unruly women; male strength and weakness; female seductive power and vulnerability (lack of power); masculine sexual desire and feminine sexual desirability II. Examples of domains in which ethnicity, nationalism and race are linked to gender and sexuality: A. Nationalist images (how citizens/members of ethnic groups represent themselves and are portrayed by others) are often sexed 1. The essay by Carol Smith we read and a book by Diane Nelson analyze how sexuality in Guatemala is raced 2 2. Narratives of ladino men/women, Indian men/women differ significantly—a difference she argues is integral to image of Guatemala as a nation 1 First examples are taken from Joane Nagel, 2003. Race, Ethnicity, and Sexuality: Intimate Intersections, Forbidden Frontiers . New York: Oxford. 2 Diane M. Nelson, 1999. A Finger in the Wound: Body Politics in Quincentennial Guatemala. Durham: Duke University Press. 16 Ethnic identity, state, and sexuality 2009 1/19/10
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2 3. Nagel discusses how nationalism itself is masculinzed in a number of ways B. Maintenance of ethnic boundaries and stratification 1. Rules governing contact and interaction, and their ideological justification a. Policing sex and marriage 1) Via miscegenation laws, sterilizations, castrations and lynchings 2) Trying to influence birth rates and send unmistakable messages about who should procreate and who shouldn’t 3) A movie titled “Rosewood” is based on an actual massacre that occurred in a Florida town in the 1940s resulting from an accusation of rape by a black man of a white woman— highly recommended C. Ethnic armed conflict and gender, sexuality: 1. Nazis and white male supremacists in the US a. “Heteronormal” masculinity associated with war, nationalism, patriotism, valor, manly codes of honor b. But the heterosexuality and potency of the male ethnic “other” is often challenged c. Female others may be seen to be slutty, impure, aggressive, unfeminine 2. Treatment of collaborators differs a. Nagel contrasts French women with their heads shaved, public reviling; men executed (note: women in the resistance were shot, too, but men aren’t publicly shamed for “sleeping with the enemy”) b. However, Mata Hari was executed—seductive spy for Germany 3. Ethnic cleansing
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