MIT21A_226F09_lec22

MIT21A_226F09_lec22 - Nov. 25, 2009 22: New Social...

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Nov. 25, 2009 22: New Social Movements: The Indigenous Movement Read: Warren and Jackson, “Introduction: studying indigenous activism in Latin America” I. Background A. We again ask the question: why, contrary to expectations, haven’t the world’s peoples shed their premodern “primordial” loyalties to blood, soil, and religion? 1. Certainly indigenous communities seemed the most likely to disappear a. Small-scale (although not all of them) b. Not “civilized” c . DISCUSS : what else? Nagel? 1) Notion that they’re rural, live on reservations, etc. 2) Not integrated fully into the market economy II. What IS indigenous? WHO are indigenous? A. Not problematic in the Western Hemisphere 1. Discussed in Warren and Jackson 2. However, elsewhere, Africa, for instance, which groups qualify is contested B. Clearly not just any group that can establish descent from first inhabitants of a given territory 1. Additional requirements: a. Marginalized status b. They need to struggle in order to maintain cultural distinctiveness c. Dispossession d. Other forms of oppression carried out by the majority society, whether colonial or postcolonial 22 New social movements: the indigenous movement 2009
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2 C. Increasingly “self-definition” (subjective) criteria are used 1. States can no longer unilaterally declare who is indigenous 2. Discussed in Nagel D. DISCUSS : the indigenous movement compared to other social movements? 1. Differences? 2. Similarities? III. Indigenous movement’s goals: A. States should be plural societies B. Indigenous persons should be citizens of a country 1. As well as special citizens 2. Work for greater inclusion of indigenous peoples in the national political process 3. While also encouraging them to remain distinct C. Citizens who enjoy rights to cultural and ethnic distinctiveness 1. Self-determination 2. And autonomy 3. Scholars term this “differentiated citizenship, or “ethnic citizenship” D. Rights are claimed as distinct peoples , not as minorities 1. Inherent rights are stressed 2. Rather than make an appeal to liberal values (fairness, equality before the law, etc.) 3. In order to establish and continue to confirm inherent rights as a distinct people, indigenous communities and their members must perform otherness a. To gain the authority to speak and be listened to
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3 b. What is indigenous is problematic, not as clear as other identity- based movements (e.g., black nationalism, women’s movement,
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MIT21A_226F09_lec22 - Nov. 25, 2009 22: New Social...

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