MIT21A_226F09_lec23

MIT21A_226F09_lec23 - Nov 30 2009 23 TRANSNATIONALISM...

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Nov. 30, 2009 23 TRANSNATIONALISM, GLOBALIZATION AND CULTURE Read: Katherine Verdery, 1998. Transnationalism, nationalism, citizenship, and property: Eastern Europe since 1989 Eriksen, 2002. Identity politics, culture and rights 143-161; The non-ethnic: 162- 178. In Eriksen, Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives (2 nd ed.). London: Pluto Press (34) I. Today we’ll look at two very different case studies illustrating globalization processes A. Analysis of transnationalism and ethnonational identity in Tonga B. Analysis of Croatia and the Canadian Croatian diaspora C. Wednesday’s lecture will be more theoretical, considering authors for today along with Li, Eriksen and Lewis II. Transgenderism is widespread in Tonga and elsewhere in the S. Pacific 1 A. Traditional patterns of cross-dressing—not brand new 1. Beauty contests with prizes are held 2. In Tonga: a yearly Miss Galaxy pageant a. Seems to be a display of transgendered glamour b. But equally the contest is a show of translocality 1) Modernity and hybridity are performed; cosmopolitanism, migration, non-local values, symbols, languages, body practices, etc c. Translocality is opposed to Locality (here meaning Tonganness) B. The stereotype of local transgendered men, called Fakaleiti, is: 1. Feminine comportment 2. Greater affinity with women than men 3. Being responsible for domestic work in the home 1 Information from Niko Besnier, Transgenderism, locality and the Miss Galaxy Beauty Pageant in Tonga. American Ethnologist 29. 3: 534-566, 2002. 23 Transnationalism, globalization and culture 2009 1/19/10
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2 4. Employment in professions regularly associated with women 5. They associate with domestic rather than public spheres 6. Some experience with cross-dressing 7. Engaging in sexual relations with “straight” men C. The Miss Galaxy beauty pageant 1. Is the antithesis of the Miss Heilala pageant a. Which involves real women performing Tonganness b. With speech, body postures c. Tongans will return from New Zealand, Australia, California to participate in the Miss Heilala pageant 1) But they are likely to be judged as poor dancers, not proficient in spoken Tongan d. In the Miss Heilala contest, locality is supposed to triumph over cosmopolitanism, transnationalism, the industrial world 2. Contrasts between the two pageants: a. Miss Galaxy is carnivalesque (as opposed to the serious—at times tedious—Miss Heilala) b. Miss Galaxy is for fun c. Miss Galaxy characterized by a “camp” sensibility 1) Is an event of outstanding exoticism d. Nonlocal clothing, language, names, mannerisms, performances— nonlocal gender itself e. Examples of nonlocality: 1) Contestants appear in “national” costumes 2) Miss Rarotonga, Miss Switzerland, Miss South America
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3 3) Contestants are emulating beauty pageants everyone watches on TV 4) Their names: Lady Amyland, Suzie from Sosefo, Priscilla Pressland, Aisa De Lorenzo, Aodushi Kiroshoto a) Chosen for exotic sounds 5) Background music: William Tell Overture, etc.
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