MIT21A_226F09_lec1011

MIT21A_226F09_lec1011 - Oct. 13 & 14, 2009 10 & 11 ETHNIC...

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Oct. 13 & 14, 2009 10 & 11 ETHNIC CONFLICT I & II Read: Maybury-Lewis, Genocide and ethnic cleansing Eller, Rwanda and Burundi: When two tribes go to war? Eller, The Kurds: Frustrated nationalism Malkki, National geographic: the rooting of peoples and the territorialization of national identity among scholars and refugees I. Introduction A. I will first discuss a typology of ethnic conflict based on the characteristics of the parties and the structure of the conflict B. I will then illustrate how to construct a typology based on historical origins of conflict 1. Please remember that typologies allow sorting; can aid in analysis 2. But sooner or later they will be found to be inadequate or distorting II. Types of ethnic conflict based on characteristics of the parties and the structure of the conflict A. First: ethnic/state 1. Examples a. Chechnyans in Russia b. Zapatistas in Mexico 2. Forms it can take a. Expulsions 1) Chinese from Vietnam 2) Asians from Uganda b. Enclaves and other types of restrictions 1) Apartheid in South Africa 2) Ghettoes—Jews in Warsaw under Nazis 10 & 11 Ethnic conflict I & II 2008 1/19/10
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2 c. Other forms of repression intended to put down ethnic separatism, nationalist movements 1) Basques 2) Native Americans in Canada and US in 19 th century 3) Islamic separatists in Philippines 4) Tibetans and the Peoples’ Republic of China 5) Berbers in Morocco and Algeria 6 ) DISCUSS : any others you know about? 3. Note that the kind of state is extremely important 4. A colonial power will deal with its minorities in a different manner than an independent state a. Although knowing this does not allow us to predict what kind of ethnic/state conflict will occur in a given independent state B. Second: ethnic group vs. ethnic group within a single nation-state 1. Examples? a. Sri Lanka b. Nigerian civil war in 1960s c. India Muslim and Hindu Nationalists d. Belgium (Flemish and Walloons) 2. Note that international interests almost always are involved C. Third: state/state conflicts that are highly inflected ethnically 1. Examples? a. Somalia invading Ethiopia b.
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3 2. Often the issue is ownership of a territory, and ethnicity is involved a. Cyprus b. Kashmir (India/Pakistan) c. Argentina and Britain dispute over Malvinas was state/state conflict that did not involve ethnic conflict 1) But a great deal of nationalist rhetoric was involved D. Fourth: cases where third-party states are significantly involved 1. Lebanese civil war (although combatants were religious-based militias rather than ethnic) 2. Bosnia, Kosovo 3. Hmong in Laos during the Vietnam war 4. India playing a substantial role in Sri Lanka a. Migration of Tamils out of India III. Second typology based on historical origins of conflict A. Struggles against colonial domination 1. Not all independence struggles have involved ethnicity or race a. U.S.’s struggle against England was not an ethnic one 1) Spoke same language, same culture in many respects,
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course ANTHRO 2.158 taught by Professor Ericajames during the Spring '03 term at MIT.

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MIT21A_226F09_lec1011 - Oct. 13 & 14, 2009 10 & 11 ETHNIC...

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