ses14_transit

ses14_transit - 17.55, Introduction to Latin American...

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17.55, Introduction to Latin American Studies, Fall 2006 Prof. Chappell Lawson Session 14: The Transition to Democracy in Chile and Elsewhere Chile: The Old Regime and Re-Democratization After the coup…. Ruling junta Pinochet, representing Army (53,000 troops) o declares political hiatus o return of law and order Gustavo Leigh, representing Air Force (11,000 troops) o U.S.-trained o strident anti-Marxist José Merino, representing Navy o British tradition o Moderate o emphasizes Allende’s personal responsibility César Mendoza, representing carabineros (35,000) o thuggish, dumb, and politically unsophisticated Rule by consensus, though Pinochet is primus inter pares Military government Mostly military cabinet; two civilians o Army gets Interior Ministry and thus intelligence services o Economy to right-wing economists o Civil service to Christian Democrats 28 officers appointed to administer government at regional level Relatively rapid military control over country little armed resistance Regime proves very hard to dislodge impervious to domestic and foreign pressure transition occurs faster than Pinochet hoped, but on his schedule lots of authoritarian enclaves persist in new democratic system Use of the materials should be cited as follows: Chappell Lawson, MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/index.html) course materials for 17.55J/21A.430J/21F.084J (Introduction to Latin American Studies, Fall 2006), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, downloaded on [Insert Date].
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Consolidation of personalistic dictatorship Pinochet gradually emerges as personalistic ruler, 1973-77 How? Intelligence agencies o Decree 521 fuses service intelligence agencies into a new agency, the DINA o Juan Manuel Contreras appointed as its head o Reports to Chief of Staff of Defense Ministry, later placed under the SENDET (Secretaría Ejecutiva Nacional de Detenidos) o In reality, reports directly to Pinochet o Used to crack down on all civilian political opponents and potential rivals o Murders of intel chief Augusto Lutz and Gen. Oscar Bonilla (March 1975) inside military o Murders of Prats (September 24, 1974) and Letelier abroad o Links with Patria y Libertad, Italian neofascists, anti-Castro Cubans o Operation Condor (collaboration among militaries in Southern Cone) o Rivalry with Comando Conjunto (Air Force), which targets Communists o Pinochet uses status as head of largest branch of the services to consolidate executive power o Army-dominated advisory board recommends President be appointed Decree 527 designates Pinochet as President (June 24, 1974) rest of junta is legislature Pinochet now controls state apparatus; reshuffles Cabinet repeatedly Pinochet places economic policy in the hands of civilians Nationalized properties, mostly bankrupt, sold off (many to former owners) “Chicago Boys” Strict austerity measures and emphasis on reduction of inflation Massive economic shrinkage in 1975 (16.6%), then recovery
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ses14_transit - 17.55, Introduction to Latin American...

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