sesa1_mex - 17.55 Introduction to Latin American Studies...

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17.55, Introduction to Latin American Studies, Fall 2006 Prof. Chappell Lawson Appendix: Political Transition in Mexico Zapata, Villa, Carranza, Obregon, PNR Æ PRM Æ PRI 3 Sectors of PRI Mexican presidents on Left and Right Mexico in 1910 Finally recovered from years of social unrest in the previous century Under the rule of a “modernizing dictator”, Porfirio Díaz Thirty-five years of economic growth and stability But problems beneath the surface Wealth has become unbelievably concentrated in the hands of a few hundred families Impoverishment of half the population Encroachment on lands, especially indigenous lands Total lack of political competition Urban middle classes and small industrial working class that’s excluded from system; pressuring for change Diaz agrees to hold fair election Wealthy liberal landowner, Francisco Madero, announces his opposition candidacy Country is ready for change Díaz steals election The Revolution Madero, from exile, calls for armed rebellion Triggers massive conflagration that last for years, called the Mexican Revolution Díaz: “Madero has unleashed a tiger. Let us see if he can ride him.” He can’t; Madero who succeeds in taking power but is then killed in a reactionary military coup years of bloodshed; economy drops 25-50%; 1M people dead, including many of the other leaders of Revolution, during a long war of attrition Three groups: reactionaries who want to bring back the old regime fight the Constitutionalists, who want to avenge Madero Then, radicals and moderates fight Radicals led by Zapata (poor Indians) and Villa (northern dispossessed) “Moderates” led by Venustiano Carranza and others (middle-classes and workers) Finally, moderates fight among themselves By 1917, group of northern generals has beaten other factions Emiliano Zapata killed in 1919 Pancho Villa killed in 1923 Alvaro Obregón Radical options defeated, but completely turning the clock back impossible Two main legacies Progressive Constitution, created in 1917 Honored in the breech Social reform has not yet reached much of Mexico Destruction of state authority; warlordism ( caciques ) In 1928, Obregón is assassinated Use of the materials should be cited as follows: Chappell Lawson, MIT OpenCourseWare ( course materials for 17.55J/21A.430J/21F.084J (Introduction to Latin American Studies, Fall 2006), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, downloaded on [Insert Date].
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Plutarcho Elías Calles, ruling party (National Revolutionary Party or PNR) Committee of surviving revolutionary generals Makes deals with the local warlords ( caciques ) in return for their loyalty Lázaro Cárdenas becomes president in 1934 Forces Calles into exile Delivers on promises of social reform Public education Sweeping land reform Nationalization of enterprises, especially U.S. oil companies
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sesa1_mex - 17.55 Introduction to Latin American Studies...

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