14-440-127 Lecture 5 Notes

# 14-440-127 Lecture 5 Notes - 14:440:127 Introduction to...

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14:440:127– Introduction to Computers for Engineers Notes for Lecture 5 Rutgers University, Fall 2008 Instructor- Blase E. Ur 0.1 Loops One of the things computers are very good at is doing repetitive tasks. Even better than repetitive tasks, computers are excellent at performing tasks over and over that are slightly diﬀerent than each other. 0.1.1 For Loops Sometimes, you’ll know exactly how many times you need to perform some action. Take the fol- lowing example: ”Display the numbers from 1 to 100, individually.” Rather than type ( disp(1); disp(2); disp(3). ..) and so on, you could just use a for loop. A for loop lets you specify that Matlab perform some repetitive action over and over, changing one variable each time: for i = 1:100 disp(i) end The for loop must begin with the word for , and end with the word end . You must also specify some variable, here called i , that is known as the index. The ﬁrst time you go through the loop, i will be 1. The next time you go through the loop, i will be 2, and so on, until the loop runs one ﬁnal time with i equal to 100. Here’s an example of how loops could have been used in the Biomedical project, to ﬁnd some minimum value and then print out all the rows with that minimum value: loc = find(c(:,6) == min(c(:,6))); for i = 1:length(loc) fprintf(’Gene %s has %.0f’, d{loc(i),1}, c(loc(i),6)) end 0.1.2 While Loops While a for loop lets you repeat some segment of code a speciﬁed number of times, a while loop lets you repeat some segment of code until a particular condition is false. While the condition is true, Matlab will loop through that code. Indeed, a while loop won’t even start if the condition is not originally true. Each cycle through the loop is called an ”iteration.” Note that if the condition becomes untrue part way through an iteration, the particular iteration will ﬁnish and the loop will not stop until the condition is checked again. Also note that, like for loops and if statements, the while loop requires that you type ”end.”

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Example: If you add the integers 1 through n, what is the smallest n for which the sum is a 3 digit number? sum = 0; n=1; while(sum<100) sum = sum+n; n=n+1; end fprintf(’The smallest n is %.0f’,n) The while loop is also very useful when getting input from the user. (Think about why it’s necessary that we write the input statement twice): x = input(’Enter a number’) while(x>0) fprintf(’The square of your number is %.0f’,x^2) x = input(’Enter a number’) end 0.2 Review of Lectures 1-4 for Exam 1 0.2.1 Review of Lecture 1- Relational/Logical Operators
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## 14-440-127 Lecture 5 Notes - 14:440:127 Introduction to...

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