Internal transport

Internal transport - Large Intenstine Exam Material...

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Large Intenstine Exam Material http://alca.rutgers.edu/bio102/compwork07.htm I. Circulation/Blood a. Circulatory Sytems i. Anatomy/circuits ii. Human Circ. Sys iii. Control of heart beat iv. Lymph system b. Blood pressure II. Blood a. Plasma b. Cellular components III. Immunity Circulatory System Anatomy/Circuits (fig 24-8, p816) o Larger volume need system to move materials around o Closed circulatory system always in vessel (size will change) o Efficient at moving materials around body Cellular level diffusion still takes place o Gas exchange across capillaries (delicate and thin walled) Fluid cannot be under high pressure When blood gets to lungs most of blood pressure is gone o Birds/Mammals (fig 42-16 p 824) 2 circuits more efficient than 1 circuit which fish have Heart is 2 pumps side to side Amphibians have 3 chambered heart (atrium is not separated) o Human Circulatory system Fig 42-6a, p 814 Closed Exchange in material done at capillaries Veinules – small viens that coalesce into veins Artery – blood away; veins – blood to the heart o Blood Vessels – 3 layers (Fig 42-6b, p 814) “tunica” Intima – inner layer Simple squamous epithelia Media – middle layer Smooth muscle o Need more muscle in artery than vein because blood is being pumped out into the arteries o Muscle to handle pressure o Used to control where the blood goes to in the blody
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Adventia – outside layer Connective tissue around the outside Keeps vessels in place – suspends it in tissue Artery vs vein Capillaries – just tunica intima Basic membrane – simple squamous epithelial Sphincters in vein-capillary junction to allow control of whether blood flow through capillaries or not Human Heart (fig 42-9, p817) Deoxygenated blood comes in through right atrium To right ventricle and pushes it out to the pulmonary artery (lungs) Oxygenated blood pulmonary vein comes in through back of left atrium and then into the left ventricle Out through the body o Control of Vertebrate Heart Beat (p818 sinoatrial node) Autorhythmic – pacemaker Intercalated discs – connected via gap junctions, ion flows from one to another Quick symmetrical movement of depolarization
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