chapt11

chapt11 - 1 Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions 2 All chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions 2 All chemical reactions ● have two parts ● Reactants- the substances you start with ● Products- the substances you end up with ● The reactants turn into the products. ● Reactants → Products 3 In a chemical reaction ● The way atoms are joined is changed ● Atoms aren’t created or destroyed. ● Can be described several ways ● In a sentence – Copper reacts with chlorine to form copper (II) chloride. ● In a word equation ● Copper + chlorine → copper (II) chloride 4 Symbols used in equations ● Table 11.1 ● the arrow separates the reactants from the products ● Read “reacts to form” ● The plus sign = “and” ● (s) after the formula -solid ● (g) after the formula -gas ● (l) after the formula -liquid 5 Symbols used in equations ● (aq) after the formula - dissolved in water, an aqueous solution. ● ↑ used after a product indicates a gas (same as (g)) ● ↓ used after a product indicates a solid (same as (s)) 6 Symbols used in equations ● indicates a reversible reaction (More later) ● shows that heat is supplied to the reaction ● is used to indicate a catalyst used in this case, platinum. heat , ∆ → → Pt → 7 What is a catalyst? ● A substance that speeds up a reaction without being changed by the reaction. ● Enzymes are biological or protein catalysts. 8 Skeleton Equation ● Uses formulas and symbols to describe a reaction ● doesn’t indicate how many. ● All chemical equations are sentences that describe reactions. 9 Convert these to equations ● Solid iron (III) sulfide reacts with gaseous hydrogen chloride to form solid iron (II) chloride and hydrogen sulfide gas. 10 Convert these to equations ● Nitric acid dissolved in water reacts with solid sodium carbonate to form liquid water and carbon dioxide gas and sodium nitrate dissolved in water. 11 The other way ● Fe(g) + O 2 (g) → Fe 2 O 3 (s) 12 The other way ● Cu(s) + AgNO 3 (aq) → Ag(s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 13 Balancing Chemical Equations 14 Balanced Equation ● Atoms can’t be created or destroyed ● All the atoms we start with we must end up with ● A balanced equation has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation. 15 ● C + O 2 → CO 2 ● This equation is already balanced ● What if it isn’t already? C + O O → C O O 16 ● C + O 2 → CO ● We need one more oxygen in the products. ● Can’t change the formula, because it describes what actually happens + → O C O O C 17 ● Must have started with two C ● 2 C + O 2 → 2 CO + → O C C ● Must be used to make another CO ● But where did the other C come from?...
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chapt11 - 1 Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions 2 All chemical...

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