Carboxylic Acids and Esters

Carboxylic Acids and Esters - Carboxylic Acids, Esters,...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines and Amides Carboxylic Acids Properties of Carboxylic Acids Esters Esterification and Hydrolysis 1 Carboxyl Group Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl group on carbon 1. O || CH3 — C—OH = CH3—COOH carboxyl group 2 Naming Carboxylic Acids Formula IUPAC alkan -oic acid Common prefix – ic acid HCOOH methanoic acid formic acid CH3COOH ethanoic acid acetic acid CH3CH2COOH propanoic acid propionic acid CH3CH2CH2COOH butanoic acid butyric acid 3 Naming Rules • Identify longest chain • (IUPAC) Number carboxyl carbon as 1 • (Common) Assign α , β , χ to carbon atoms adjacent to carboxyl carbon CH3 | CH3 — CH—CH2 —COOH IUPAC 3-methylbutanoic acid Common β -methylbutryic acid 4 Learning Check CA1 Give IUPAC and common names: A. CH3COOH CH3 | B. CH3CHCOOH 5 Solution CA 1 A. CH3COOH ethanoic acid; acetic acid CH3 | B. CH3CHCOOH 2-methylpropanoic acid; α -methylpropionic acid 6 Properties • Carboxylic acids are weak acids CH3COOH + H2O • Neutralized by a base CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COO– + H3O+ CH3COO– Na+ + H2O 7 Esters In and ester, the H in the carboxyl group is replaced with an alkyl group O || CH3 — C—O —CH3 = CH3—COO —CH3 ester group 8 Esters in Plants Esters give flowers and fruits their pleasant fragances and flavors. 9 Naming Esters • Name the alkyl from the alcohol –O• Name the acid with the C=O with –ate acid alcohol O || methyl CH3 — C—O —CH3 Ethanoate (acetate) methyl ethanoate (IUPAC) methyl acetate (common) 10 Some Esters and Their Names Flavor/Odor Raspberries HCOOCH2CH3 ethyl methanoate (IUPAC) ethyl formate (common) Pineapples CH3CH2CH2 COOCH2CH3 ethyl butanoate (IUPAC) ethyl butyrate (common) 11 Learning Check CA 2 Give the IUPAC and common names of the following compound, which is responsible for the flavor and odor of pears. O || CH3 — C—O —CH2CH2CH3 12 Solution CA2 O || propyl CH3 — C—O —CH2CH2CH3 propyl ethanoate (IUPAC) propyl acetate (common) 13 Learning Check CA 3 Draw the structure of the following compounds: A. 3-bromobutanoic acid B. Ethyl propionoate 14 Solution CA 3 A. 3-bromobutanoic acid Br | CH3CHCH2COOH B. Ethyl propionoate O || CH3 CH2 COCH2CH3 CH3CH2COOCH2CH3 15 Esterification • Reaction of a carboxylic acid and alcohol • Acid catalyst O || H+ CH3 — C—OH + HO—CH2CH3 O || CH3 — C—O—CH2CH3 + H2O 16 Hydrolysis • Esters react with water and acid catalyst • Split into carboxylic acid and alcohol O || H+ H — C—O—CH2CH3 + H2O O || H — C—OH + HO—CH2CH3 17 Saponification • Esters react with a bases • Produce the salt of the carboxylic acid and alcohol O || CH3C—OCH2CH3 + NaOH O || CH3C—O– Na+ salt of carboxylic acid + HOCH2CH3 18 Learning Check CA4 Write the equation for the reaction of propionic acid and methyl alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst. 19 Solution CA4 O || H+ CH3CH2COH + HOCH3 O || CH3CH2COCH3 + H2O 20 Learning Check CA5 What are the organic products when methylacetate reacts with A. Water and an acid catalyst? B. KOH? 21 Solution CA5 A. O || CH3COH + HOCH3 O || B. CH3CO– K+ + HOCH3 22 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Sdfsdf during the Winter '08 term at BYU.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online