Matter - Physical and Chemical Changes Pure Substances...

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Physical and Chemical Changes Pure Substances Mixtures States of Matter
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Everything that has mass and volume is called matter.
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All matter, regardless of state, undergoes physical and chemical changes. These changes can be microscopic or macroscopic.
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A physical change occurs when the substance changes state but does not change its chemical composition. For example: water freezing into ice, cutting a piece of wood into smaller pieces, etc. The form or appearance has changed, but the properties of that substance are the same (i.e. it has the same melting point, boiling point, chemical composition, etc.)
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Melting point Boiling point Vapor pressure Color State of matter Density Electrical conductivity Solubility Adsorption to a surface Hardness
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A chemical change occurs when a substance changes into something new. This occurs due to heating, chemical reaction, etc. You can tell a chemical change has occurred if the density, melting point or freezing point of the original substance changes. Many common signs of a chemical change can be seen (bubbles forming, mass changed, etc).
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Reaction with acids Reaction with bases (alkalis) Reaction with oxygen (combustion) Ability to act as oxidizing agent Ability to act as reducing agent Reaction with other elements Decomposition into simpler substances Corrosion
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Physical and chemical properties may be intensive or extensive .
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Intensive properties such as density, color, and boiling point do not depend on the size of the sample of matter and can be used to identify substances.
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Extensive properties such as mass and volume do depend on the quantity of the sample.
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Physical properties are those that we can determine without changing the identity of the substance we are studying.
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The physical properties of sodium metal can be observed or measured. It is a soft, lustrous, silver-colored metal with a relatively low melting point and low density. Hardness, color, melting point and density are all physical properties.
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Chemical properties describe the way a substance can change or react to form other substances. These properties, then, must be determined using a process that changes the identity of the substance of interest.
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One of the chemical properties of alkali metals such as sodium and potassium is that they react with water. To determine this, we would have to combine an alkali metal with water and observe what happens.
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