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Unformatted text preview: A SELFSELFGUIDED GUIDED COMPUTER ACTIVITY ACTIVITY s 100’s of free ppt’s from library Welcome to Atoms Welcome This is a Self­Guided lesson on Atoms. In this computer activity you will be creating your own Study Guide. Feel free to complete this lesson at your own pace. Please follow all instructions carefully. Ask your teacher if you need any help. Atoms Part 1 Atoms In Part 1 of this activity you will learn about the Atomic ­ Molecular Theory of Matter. You will also learn about scientists and how they have gathered evidence about atoms. Please complete your Study Guide as you proceed! Atomic - Molecular Theory of Matter of The Atomic ­ Molecular Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of small, fast moving particles called atoms. These atoms can join together to form molecules. This theory is really thousands of individual theories that provide evidence for the whole theory. Matter Matter Since the atom is too small to be seen even with the most powerful microscopes, Believe it or not this is a scientists rely upon microscope. Even with the models to help us to world’s best microscopes we cannot clearly see the structure understand the atom. or behavior of the atom. Scientific Models Scientific Scientists create models to help them to visualize complex properties, structures or behaviors. Since the atom is so small, scientists must gather Indirect Evidence to This is a model of a very complex molecule made of many different develop their models. kinds of atoms. Each colored ball represents an atom of a different element. What should a Model look like? What This is a painting of a young woman by Pablo Picasso. Does it actually look like a young woman? Scientific models may not always look like the actual object. A model is an attempt to use familiar ideas to describe unfamiliar things in a visual way. Is this really an Atom? Is this really an Atom? Many of the models that you have seen may look like the one below. It shows the parts and structure of the atom. Even though we do not know what an atom looks like, scientific models must be based on evidence. The model above represents the most modern version of the atom. (Artist drawing) Indirect Evidence Indirect Indirect Evidence is evidence gathered without being able to directly observe the object. The Atomic ­ Molecular Theory of Matter is based upon a vast amount of indirect evidence gathered over a long period of time. Just like pieces being added to a puzzle, each new bit of information gives us a better understanding of atoms. How can Indirect Evidence be Gathered? be Click here to visit a lab where actual scientific resea Answer the questions in your Study Guide about the example of Indirect Evidence. Can a Model be Changed? Can a Model be Changed? A model can be changed as new information is collected. From the early Greek concept to the modern atomic theory, scientists have built upon and modified existing models of the atom. Where did it all begin? Where The word “atom” comes from the Greek word “atomos” which means indivisible. The idea that all matter is made up of atoms was first proposed by the Greek philosopher Democritus in the 5th century B.C. History of the Atom History The concept of atoms as proposed by Democritus remained relatively unchanged for over 2,000 years. In the late 18th century new discoveries were made that led to a better understanding of atoms and chemistry. Many scientists since that time have contributed new evidence for the Atomic ­ Molecular Theory. Niels Bohr is one of many scientists that have given Click on the picture of Niels Bohr to visit a website to learn more about us a better understanding important scientists and how our of Atoms. models of the atom have changed. Good JOB! You have finished Part 1 of this You have finished Part 1 of this program. See the teacher for the materials to begin Part 2. Atoms Part 2 Atoms In Part 2 of this activity you will learn about the particles within the atom. You will visit more websites to learn about the structure and behavior of the atom. Check your Study Guide for Instructions! Atomic Structure Atomic ² Nucleus ­ the central portion of the atom. Contains the protons and neutrons. ² Electron Cloud ­ area around the nucleus where electrons are found. Electrons are arranged within the electron cloud in energy levels (Energy levels are sometimes called shells or orbits). Subatomic Particles Subatomic ² Proton ­ positive charged particle found in the nucleus. Mass = 1 amu. (a.m.u ­ Atomic Mass Unit) ² Neutron ­ particle with no charge. Found in the nucleus. Mass = 1 amu. ² Electron ­ negative charged particle found within the electron cloud . Mass = 1/1836 amu. Why are all Atoms are Electrically Neutral? Electrically Normally in an atom the If an atom gains or loses number of electrons electrons the atom is no longer within the electron cloud neutral . This can happen if the is equal to the number of atom absorbs or releases protons in the nucleus. energy The atom is then called The positive and negative an ION. charges cancel each IMPORTANT other out. Therefore, In all ATOMS the number of the atom is said to be positively charged protons electrically neutral. is always equal to the number of negatively charged electrons. Make a Make a diagram of the Helium atom in your Study Guide. Now you are off to Jolly Old’ Now you are off to Jolly Old’ England! Now you will visit a website from England to learn about Atomic Structure. Be sure to follow the instructions in your Study Guide. ck here to visit a website at the BBC (British Broadcasting Company) Isotopes Isotopes All atoms of an element have the same number of protons but the number of neutrons can vary. Atoms with the same number of protons and differing numbers of neutrons are called ISOTOPES. Some Isotopes are unstable. The nucleus of unstable atoms do not hold together well. Radioactive decay is the process whereby the nucleus of unstable isotopes release fast moving particles and energy. The discovery of Radioactivity almost happened by accident. Click on the picture of Henri Becquerel to learn about his discovery. Great Job!! You have now completed the You have now completed the Atoms PowerPoint. See the teacher for further instructions. ...
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