{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

bondsOpt - Chemical compounds covalent(molecular and ionic...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chemical compounds - covalent (molecular) and ionic Chemical formulas elemental analysis, empirical formulas Molar masses with empirical formulas --> chemical formula Expressing chemical equations Stoichiometric calculations Limiting Reactant : determines amount of product formed Theoretical yields vs actual yields 100’s of free ppt’s from www.pptpoint.com library
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chemical Bonding A chemical bond results from strong electrostatic interactions between two atoms. The nature of the atoms determines the kind of bond. COVALENT bonds result from a strong interaction between NEUTRAL atoms Each atom donates an electron resulting in a pair of electrons that are SHARED between the two atoms
Image of page 2
For example, consider a hydrogen molecule, H 2 . When the two hydrogen, H, atoms are far apart from each other they do not feel any interaction. As they come closer each “feels” the presence of the other. The electron on each H atom occupies a volume that covers both H atoms and a COVALENT bond is formed. Once the bond has been formed, the two electrons are shared by BOTH H atoms.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
An electron density plot for the H 2 molecule shows that the shared electrons occupy a volume equally distributed over BOTH H atoms. Electron Density for the H 2 molecule
Image of page 4
Potential energy (kJ/mol) Separation (Å)
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
It is also possible that, as two atoms come closer, one electron is transferred to the other atom. The atom that gives up an electron acquires a +1 charge and the other atom, which accepts the electron acquires a –1 charge. The two atoms are attracted to each other through Coulombic interactions – opposite charges attract – resulting in an IONIC bond. Animation
Image of page 6
Potential energy (kJ/mol) Separation (Å)
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
What factors determine if an atom forms a covalent or ionic bond with another atom? The number of electrons in an atom, particularly the number of the electrons furthest away from the nucleus determines the atom’s reactivity and hence its tendency to form covalent or ionic bonds. These outermost electrons are the one’s that are more likely to “feel” the presence of other atoms and hence the one’s involved in bonding i.e. in reactions. Chemistry of an element depends almost entirely on the number of electrons, and hence its atomic number.
Image of page 8
THE PERIODIC TABLE By the late 1800’s it was realized that elements could be grouped by similar chemical properties and that the chemical and physical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers PERIODIC LAW .
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern