organic chemistryOpt

organic chemistryOpt - Organic Chemistry 100s of free ppts...

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Unformatted text preview: Organic Chemistry 100s of free ppts from www.pptpoint.com library Refinery and tank storage facilities, like this one in Texas, are needed to change the hydrocarbons of crude oil to many different petroleum products. The classes and properties of hydrocarbons form one topic of study in organic chemistry. Organic Compounds An organic compound is one that has carbon as the principal element An inorganic element is any compound that is not an organic compound. Carbon is unique It has 6 electrons in its outer shell arranges 1s 2 2s 2 sp 2 It has room for 4 bonds to 4 other atoms. Organic compounds have specific geometry around the carbon to carbon bond. If there are four atoms or groups around a carbon atom, it has a tetrahedral geometry . (A)The carbon atom forms bonds in a tetrahedral structure with a bond angle of 109.5 O . (B) Carbon-to- carbon bond angles are 109.5 O , so a chain of carbon atoms makes a zigzag pattern. (C) The unbranched chain of carbon atoms is usually simplified in a way that looks like a straight chain, but it is actually a zigzag, as shown in (B). Hydrocarbons Introduction A hydrocarbon is a compound consisting of only hydrogen and carbon. The carbon to carbon can be single, double, or triple bonds. The bonds are always nonpolar. Alkanes are hydrocarbons with only single bonds. Alkanes occur in what is called a homologous series . Each successive compound differs from the one before it only by a CH 2 Carbon-to-carbon bonds can be single (A), double (B), or triple (C). Note that in each example, each carbon atom has four dashes, which represent four bonding pairs of electrons, satisfying the octet rule. Carbon-to-carbon chains can be (A) straight, (B) branched, or (C) in a closed ring. (Some carbon bonds are drawn longer, but are actually the same length.) Compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structures (arrangements of the atoms) are called isomers . Naming alkanes Identify the longest continuous chain. The locations or other groups of atoms attached to the longest chain are identified and numbered by counting from the end of the molecule which keeps the numbering system as low as possible. Hydrocarbon groups that are attached to the longest continuous chain and named using the parent name and changing the ane suffix to yl. Recall that a molecular formula (A) describes the numbers of different kinds of atoms in a molecule, and a structural formula (B) represents a two- dimensional model of how the atoms are bonded to each other. Each dash represents a bonding pair of electrons. (A)A straight-chain alkane is identified by the prefix n- for "normal" in the common naming system. (B) A branched-chain alkane isomer is identified by the prefix iso- for "isomer" in the common naming system. In the IUPAC name, isobutane is 2- methylpropane....
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 210 taught by Professor Wilson during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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organic chemistryOpt - Organic Chemistry 100s of free ppts...

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