Covalent Bonding

Covalent Bonding - Covalent Bonding electrons are shared...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Covalent Bonding …electrons are shared
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Episode 9 – Molecular Architecture Episode 8 – Chemical Bonds VIDEO ON DEMAND Elements bond to form compounds by giving, taking, or sharing electrons. The differences between ionic and covalent bonds are explained by the use of scientific models and examples from nature. World of Chemistry The Annenberg Film Series VIDEO ON DEMAND The shape and physical properties of a molecule are determined by the electronic structure of its elements and their bonds. How living organisms distinguish between similar molecules (isomers) is revealed.
Background image of page 2
Guiding Questions? Why are some thing liquids at room temperature and other things gases or solids? How are shapes of molecules determined? How do Splenda and other artificial sweeteners work? How do bees tell the difference between a worker and the queen? How do intermolecular forces affect the structure of proteins and DNA?
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
How does H2 form? + + The nuclei repel But they are attracted to electrons They share the electrons
Background image of page 4
Covalent bonds Nonmetals hold onto their valence electrons. They can’t give away electrons to bond. Still want noble gas configuration. Get it by sharing valence electrons with each other. By sharing both atoms get to count the electrons toward noble gas configuration. 1s22s22p63s23p6…eight valence electrons (stable octet)
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons F A second atom also has seven F By sharing electrons …both end with full orbitals
Background image of page 6
Single Covalent Bond A sharing of two valence electrons. Only nonmetals and Hydrogen. Different from an ionic bond because they actually form molecules. Two specific atoms are joined. In an ionic solid you can’t tell which atom the electrons moved from or to.
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
How to show how they formed It’s like a jigsaw puzzle. I have to tell you what the final formula is. You put the pieces together to end up with the right formula. For example- show how water is formed with covalent bonds.
Background image of page 8
Water H O Each hydrogen has 1 valence electron Each hydrogen wants 1 more The oxygen has 6 valence electrons The oxygen wants 2 more They share to make each other happy
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Water Put the pieces together The first hydrogen is happy The oxygen still wants one more H O
Background image of page 10
Water The second hydrogen attaches Every atom has full energy levels A pair of electrons is a single bond H O H H H O
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Lewis Structures 1) Count up total number of valence electrons 2) Connect all atoms with single bonds - “multiple” atoms usually on outside - “single” atoms usually in center; C always in center, H always on outside. 3) Complete octets on exterior atoms (not H, though) 4) Check - valence electrons math with Step 1 - all atoms (except H) have an octet; if not, try multiple bonds - any extra electrons? Put on central atom
Background image of page 12
Sometimes atoms share more than one pair of valence electrons. A double bond is when atoms share two
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

Page1 / 77

Covalent Bonding - Covalent Bonding electrons are shared...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 14. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online