u3 - Outline Chemistry Unit 3: Atomic Structure PowerPoint...

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Unit 3: Atomic Structure Chemistry Outline PowerPoint Presentation by Mr. John Bergmann
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Basics of the Atom Particle Charge Location in the Atom Mass a.m.u. : unit used to measure mass of atoms proton neutron electron 1+ 0 1– in nucleus in nucleus orbiting nucleus ~1 a.m.u. ~1 a.m.u. ~0 a.m.u.
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atomic number : -- -- To find net charge on an atom, consider ____ and ____. mass number : # of p+ the whole number on Periodic Table determines identity of atom (# of p+) + (# of n0) 10 Ne 20.1797 p+ e– (It is NOT on “the Table.”)
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“When I see a cation, I see a positive ion; ion : anion : a (–) ion cation : a (+) ion -- -- a charged atom more e– than p+ formed when atoms gain e– -- -- more p+ than e– formed when atoms lose e– a n ions n egative ions . a re I think that that is, I… C ion.” A +
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19 Description Net Charge Atomic Number Mass Number Ion Symbol 15 p+ 16 n0 18 e– 38 p+ 50 n0 36 e– 18 e– 1+ 39 Te2– 128 K1+ Sr2 + P3– 88 31 15 3– 38 52 2– 2+ 76 n0 52 p+ 54 e– 20 n0 19 p+
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protium Isotopes: different varieties of an element’s atoms -- -- have diff. #’s of n0; thus, diff. masses some are radioactive; others aren’t Isotope H–1 Mass p+ n0 Common Name H–2 H–3 tritium deuterium 1 2 3 1 0 1 1 1 2 C–12 atoms C–14 atoms All atoms of an element react the same, chemically. 6 p+ 6 n0 stable 6 p+ 8 n0 radioactive
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α - or β -particles, γ rays Radioactive Isotopes : Nucleus attempts to attain a lower energy state by releasing extra energy as __________. e.g., half-life : the time needed for ½ of a radioactive sample to decay into stable matter have too many or too few n0 radiation e.g., C–14: -- half-life is 5,730 years -- decays into stable N–14
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Years from now 0 g of N–14 present 5,730 11,460 120 60 30 15 7.5 0 Say that a 120 g sample of C-14 is found today. g of C–14 present 17,190 22,920 60 90 105 112.5 = C–14 = N–14
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Complete Atomic Designation I 53 125 1– …gives precise info about an atomic particle mass # atomic # charge (if any) element symbol Goiter due to lack of iodine iodine is now added to salt
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Protons Complete Atomic Designation 92 Neutrons Electrons 34 11 146 45 12 92 36 10 59 27 3+ Co 37 17 1– Cl 55 7+ Mn 25 238 92 U 23 1+ Na 79 34 2– Se 20 18 17 30 18 25 32 24 27
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Historical Development of the Atomic Model Greek model of atom Greeks (~400 B.C.E.) Matter is discontinuous (i.e., “grainy”). Democritus & Leucippus
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Hints at the Scientific Atom ** Antoine Lavoisier: law of conservation of mass ** Joseph Proust (1799): law of definite proportions : every compound has a fixed proportion e.g., water……………………. . chromium (II) oxide……. 8 g O : 1 g H 13 g Cr : 4 g O
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Hints at the Scientific Atom (cont.) ** John Dalton (1803): 8 g O e.g., water……………………. . chromium (II) oxide……. hydrogen peroxide. .……. chromium (VI) oxide…… 1 g H : 16 g O 1 g H : 13 g Cr 4 g O : 13 g Cr 12 g O : 2 3 law of multiple proportions : When two different compounds have same two elements, equal mass of one element results in integer multiple of mass of other.
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1. Elements are made of indivisible particles called atoms.
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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u3 - Outline Chemistry Unit 3: Atomic Structure PowerPoint...

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