U5 - Unit 5 Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature Chemistry NaClO3 Fe(ClO3)2 lithium nitrate lithium nitride lithium nitrite lead(II sulfide barium

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 5: Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature Chemistry NaClO3 Fe(ClO3)2 lithium nitrate lithium nitride lithium nitrite lead (II) sulfide barium sulfide sulfur dioxide Fe(ClO3)3 NO2 N2O 4 N2O5 Outline PowerPoint Presentation by Mr. John Bergmann Chemical Bonding Ionic Bonds : atoms give up or gain e– and are attracted to each other by coulombic attraction Na Na1 + Cl Cl1– loses e– gains e– Na1+ + Cl1– NaCl K1+ + NO31– KNO3 ionic compounds = salts where NO31– is a polyatomic ion : a charged group of atoms that stay together Properties of Salts 1. very hard – 2. high melting points – 3. brittle – each ion is bonded to several oppositely-charged ions many bonds must be broken with sufficient force, like atoms are brought next to each other and repel calcite Covalent Bonds …atoms share e– to get a full valence shell Lewis structure : 1. Two shared e– make a single covalent bond, four make a double bond, etc. 2. unshared pairs : pairs of unbonded valence e– 3. Each atom needs a full outer shell, i.e., 8 e–. Exception: H needs 2 e– a model of a covalent molecule that shows all of the valence e– 1s2 2s2 2p2 (4 v.e–) 1s2 2s2 2p5 (7 v.e–) both need 8 v.e– for a full outer shell (octet rule ) C F x x H x x x x x x F x carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) o C o o o x x x x x x F x o C o o o x x x x x x F x x x x x x F x x x x x x x F x x x x x x x x F x x x x x x x F x x x x x x x F x methane (CH4) o C o o o H x o C o o o H x x H x H H x H x H x o o o o N o nitrogen triiodide (N I 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) x x x x x x I x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x I x x x x x x I x x x x x x x x I x x x x x x x I x o o o o N o o C o o o x x x x x O x x x x x x O x x x x x x O x o C o o o O = C = O x x x x x x x x x x x x x O x butter (consist of two nonmetal elements) covalent compounds = molecular compounds-- have lower melting points than do ionic compounds In insulators (like wood), the v.e– are attached to particular atoms. Metallic Bonds In metals, valence shells of atoms overlap, so v.e– are free to travel between atoms through material. Not so in metals. All due to free-moving v.e–. Properties of Metals ductile conduct heat and electricity malleable These are much weaker than ionic, covalent, or metallic bonds, but very important in determining states of matter, boiling and melting points, and molecular shape (among other things). Other Types of Bonds dipole-dipole forces hydrogen bonds London dispersion forces ion-dipole forces DNA boiling H2O Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds chemical formula : To write an ionic compound’s formula, we need: 1. the two types of ions 2. the charge on each ion Na1+ and F1– Ba2+ and O2– Na1+ and O2– Ba2+ and F1– shows types of atoms and how many of each Na F Ba O Na 2 O Ba F 2 (i.e., “pink” and “blue” ) has neutral charge; charge on...
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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U5 - Unit 5 Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature Chemistry NaClO3 Fe(ClO3)2 lithium nitrate lithium nitride lithium nitrite lead(II sulfide barium

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