u7 - Chemistry Unit 7: Chemical Equations Evidence of a...

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Unit 7: Chemical Equations Chemistry
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Evidence of a chemical reaction: A reaction has occurred if the chemical and physical properties of the reactants and products differ. heat light sound gas emitted color change odor For a reaction to occur, particles of reactants must collide, and with sufficient energy collision theory
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activation energy : Chemical reactions release or absorb energy. energy needed to start a reaction exothermic reactions endothermic reactions The reaction in an oxy- acetylene torch is exothermic. Photosynthesis is an endothermic reaction.
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catalyst : speeds up reaction wo/being consumed it lowers the activation energy (AE) AE AE time time without catalyst with catalyst Examples: enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions catalytic converters convert CO into CO2 Energy
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Reaction Conditions and Terminology Certain symbols give more info about a reaction. (s) = solid (l) = liquid (g) = gas (aq) = aqueous (dissolved in H2O) NaCl(s) NaCl(aq) More on aqueous… -- “soluble” or “in solution” also indicate that a substance is dissolved in water (usually) -- acids are aqueous solutions
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Other symbols… means. .. Temp. at which we perform rxn. might be given. The catalyst used might be given. means ______ is added to the reaction MgCO3(s) MgO(s) + CO2(g) C2H4(g) + H2(g) C2H6(g) Pt C6H5Cl + NaOH C6H5OH + NaCl 400oC “yields” or “produces” heat (i.e., clues about the reaction)
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precipitate : a solid product that forms in an aqueous solution reaction Na 2 CO3 + Ca ( NO3 )2 Ca CO3 + (aq) (aq) Na1+ Ca2+ CO32 NO31 2 (aq) (s) Na1+ Na NO3 NO31 ppt clear Na2CO3 solution clear Ca(NO3)2 solution cloudy solution containing CaCO3(s) and NaNO3(aq) “chunks” “sinkies” “floaties”
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Factors that influence the rate of a reaction To make reaction rate increase… concentration of reactants particle size temperature mechanical mixing pressure catalyst use one nature of reactants N/A
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In a reaction: atoms are rearranged AND mass energy charge are conserved Balancing Chemical Equations = law of conservation of mass same # of atoms of each type on each side of equation
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EX. solid iron reacts with oxygen gas to yield
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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u7 - Chemistry Unit 7: Chemical Equations Evidence of a...

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