u10 - Chemistry Unit 10: Solutions Solution Definitions...

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Unit 10: Solutions Chemistry
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Solution Definitions solution : a homogeneous mixture -- e.g., -- alloy : a solid solution of metals -- e.g., solvent : the substance that dissolves the solute evenly mixed at the particle level salt water bronze = Cu + Sn; brass = Cu + Zn e.g., water e.g., salt
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soluble : “will dissolve in” miscible : refers to two liquids that mix evenly in all proportions -- e.g., food coloring and water
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Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution 1. temperature 2. particle size 3. mixing 4. nature of solvent or solute With more mixing, rate As temp. , rate As size , rate We can’t control this factor.
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Classes of Solutions aqueous solution : solvent = water amalgam : e.g., tincture : e.g., organic solution : solvent = alcohol dental amalgam tincture of iodine (for cuts) solvent = mercury water = “the universal solvent” solvent contains ________ Organic solvents include benzene, toluene, hexane, etc. carbon
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Non-Solution Definitions insoluble : “will NOT dissolve in” e.g., immiscible : refers to two liquids that will NOT form a solution e.g., suspension : appears uniform while being stirred, but settles over time e.g., sand and water water and oil liquid medications
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Molecular Polarity nonpolar molecules: -- e– are shared equally -- tend to be symmetric e.g., e.g., polar molecules: -- e– NOT shared equally “Like dissolves like.” fats and oils H–C–H H H–C–H H–C–H H–C–H H water H H O polar + polar = solution nonpolar + nonpolar = solution polar + nonpolar = suspension (won’t mix evenly)
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Anabolic steroids and HGH are fat-soluble, synthetic hormones. Using Solubility Principles Chemicals used by body obey solubility principles. -- water-soluble vitamins : e.g., -- fat-soluble vitamins : e.g., vitamin C vitamins A & D
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Dry cleaning employs nonpolar liquids. Using Solubility Principles (cont.) -- polar liquids damage wool, silk -- also, dry clean for stubborn stains (ink, rust, grease) -- tetrachloroethylene was in longtime use C=C Cl Cl Cl Cl
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emulsifying agent (emulsifier ): molecules w/both a polar AND a nonpolar end -- -- allows polar and nonpolar substances to mix e.g., soap lecithin eggs MODEL OF A SOAP MOLECULE NONPOLAR HYDROCARBON TAIL POLAR HEAD Na1 + detergent
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vs. detergent -- -- made from animal and vegetable fats made from petroleum -- works better in hard water Hard water contains minerals w/ions like Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ that replace Na1+ at polar end of soap molecule. Soap is changed into an insoluble precipitate (i.e., soap scum).
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u10 - Chemistry Unit 10: Solutions Solution Definitions...

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