u11 - Unit 11: Equilibrium / Acids and Bases reversible...

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Unit 11: Equilibrium / Acids and Bases reversible reaction : R P and P R Acid dissociation is a reversible reaction. H2SO4 2 H1+ + SO42–
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equilibrium: -- looks like nothing is happening, however… -- rate at which R P rate at which P R = system is dynamic, NOT static equilibrium does NOT mean “half this & half that”
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Le Chatelier’s principle : When a system at equilibrium is disturbed, it shifts to a new equili- brium that counteracts the disturbance. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g) Disturbance Equilibrium Shift Add more N2……………… Add more H2……………… Add more NH3……………. Add a catalyst……………. . Remove NH3……………… Increase pressure………… no shift
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Light-Darkening Eyeglasses AgCl + energy Ago + Clo (clear) (dark) Go outside… Then go inside… Sunlight more intense than inside light; shift to a new equilibrium: “energy” GLASSES DARKEN “energy” shift to a new equilibrium: GLASSES LIGHTEN
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In a chicken… CaO + CO2 CaCO3 In summer, [ CO2 ] in a chicken’s blood due to panting. -- -- -- How could we increase eggshell thickness in summer? (eggshells) eggshells are thinner shift ; give chickens carbonated water put CaO additives in chicken feed [ CO2 ] , shift [ CaO ] , shift
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< 7 Acids and Bases pH taste ______ react with ______ proton (H1+) donor Both are electrolytes . turn litmus lots of H1+/H3O1+ react w/metals pH taste ______ react with ______ proton (H1+) acceptor turn litmus lots of OH1– don’t react w/metals sour bases red > 7 bitter acids blue (they conduct electricity in soln) litmus paper
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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ACID BASE NEUTRAL pH scale : measures acidity/basicity Each step on pH scale represents a factor of ___. pH 5 vs. pH 6 (___X more acidic) pH 3 vs. pH 5 (_______X different) pH 8 vs. pH 13 (_______X different) 10 10 100 100,000
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Common Acids Strong Acids stomach acid; (dissociate ~100%) hydrochloric acid: HCl H1+ + Cl1– -- pickling : cleaning metals w/conc. HCl sulfuric acid: H2SO4 2 H1+ + SO42– -- #1 chemical; (auto) battery acid explosives; nitric acid: HNO3 H1+ + NO31– -- fertilizer
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Common Acids (cont.) Weak Acids (dissociate very little) acetic acid: CH3COOH H1+ + CH3COO1– -- hydrofluoric acid: HF H1+ + F1– -- citric acid, H3C6H5O7 -- ascorbic acid, H2C6H6O6 -- lactic acid, CH3CHOHCOOH -- vinegar; naturally made by apples used to etch glass lemons or limes; sour candy vitamin C waste product of muscular exertion
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carbonic acid, H2CO3 -- carbonated beverages -- CO2 + H2O H2CO3 dissolves limestone (CaCO3) rainwater in air H2CO3: cave formation H2CO3: natural acidity of lakes H2CO3: beverage carbonation
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Dissociation and Ion Concentration Strong acids or bases dissociate ~100%. HNO3 H1+ + NO31– HNO3 H1+ + NO31– For “strongs,” we often use two arrows of differing length OR just a single arrow. H1+ NO31– + H1+ NO31– 1 2 100 1000/L 0.0058 M 1 2 100 1000/L 0.0058 M 1 2 100 1000/L 0.0058 M + + + + +
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HCl H1+ + Cl1– 4.0 M 4.0 M 4.0 M + monoprotic acid H2SO4 2 H1+ + SO42– 2.3 M 4.6 M 2.3 M + SO42 H1+ H1 + S O 4 2 H 1 + + diprotic acid Ca(OH)2 Ca2+ 2 OH1– + 0.025 M 0.025 M 0.050 M +
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pH Calculations Recall that the hydronium ion (H3O1+) is the species formed when hydrogen ion (H1+) attaches to water (H2O). OH1– is the hydroxide ion .
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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u11 - Unit 11: Equilibrium / Acids and Bases reversible...

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