u5ohnotes18f2005

u5ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 5: Bonding and Inorganic...

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Unit 5: Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature Chemical Bonding Ionic Bonds : atoms give up or gain e and are attracted to each other by coulombic attraction Na loses an e Cl gains an e Na Na 1+ + e Cl + e Cl 1– ionic compounds = salts Na 1+ + Cl 1– NaCl K 1+ + NO 3 1– KNO 3 where NO 3 1– is a polyatomic ion : a charged group of atoms that stay together Properties of Salts 1. very hard – each ion is bonded to several oppositely-charged ions 2. high melting points – many bonds must be broken 3. brittle – with sufficient force, like atoms are brought next to each other and repel
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Covalent Bonds …atoms share e to get a full valence shell C 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 (4 v.e ) F 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 (7 v.e ) both need 8 v.e for a full outer shell (octet rule ) Lewis structure : a model of a covalent molecule that shows all of the valence e 1. Two shared e make a single covalent bond, four make a double bond, etc. 2. unshared pairs : pairs of unbonded valence e 3. Each atom needs a full outer shell, i.e., 8 e . Exception: H needs 2 e carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) o C o o o x x x x x x F x o C o o o x x x x x x F x x x x x x x F x x x x x x F x x x x x x x F x x C x x x x x x F x x x x x F x x x x x F x x x x x x F x x
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methane (CH 4 ) nitrogen triiodide (N I 3 ) carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) covalent compounds = molecular compounds -- have lower melting points than do ionic compounds Metallic Bonds In metals, valence shells of atoms overlap, so v.e are free to travel between atoms through material Properties of Metals conduct heat and electricity; ductile; malleable Other Types of Bonds dipole-dipole forces, hydrogen bonds, London
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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u5ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 5: Bonding and Inorganic...

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