u2ohnotes18f2005

u2ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 2: Matter and Energy Matter...

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Unit 2: Matter and Energy Matter Introductory Definitions matter : anything having mass and volume mass : the amount of matter in an object weight : the pull of gravity on an object volume : the space an object occupies units: L, dm 3 , mL, cm 3 L 3 state of matter : solid, liquid, or gas (plasma, neutron star) composition : what the matter is made of copper: many Cu atoms water: many groups of 2 H’s and 1 O properties : describe the matter -- what it looks like, smells like, etc. -- how it behaves atom : a basic building block of matter ~100 diff. kinds
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2 Elements contain only one type of atom 1. monatomic elements consist of unbonded, “like” atoms e.g., Fe, Al, Cu, He 2. polyatomic elements consist of several “like” atoms bonded together diatomic elements: H 2 O 2 Br 2 F 2 I 2 N 2 Cl 2 others: P 4 S 8 allotropes : different forms of the same element in the same state of matter OXYGEN CARBON oxygen gas elemental carbon graphite ozone diamond buckyball molecule : a neutral group of bonded atoms
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Description Chemical Symbol Model 1 oxygen atom O 1 oxygen molecule O 2 2 unbonded oxygen atoms 2 O 1 phosphorus atom P 1 phosphorus molecule P 4 4 unbonded phosphorus atoms 4 P Elements may consist of either molecules or unbonded atoms.
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4 Compounds …contain two or more different types of atoms …have properties that are different from those of their constituent elements Na (sodium): explodes in water table salt Cl 2 (chlorine): poisonous gas (NaCl) Atoms can only be altered by nuclear means. Molecules can be altered by chemical means. (i.e., chemical reactions, chemical changes) e.g., Dehydration of sugar C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) 12 C(s) + 11 H 2 O(g) Electrolysis of water 2 H 2 O(l) 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) In a chemical reaction, the atoms are rearranged.
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Compound Composition All samples of a given compound have the same composition. Phosgene gas (COCl
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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u2ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 2: Matter and Energy Matter...

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