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u6ohnotes18f2005

# u6ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 6 The Mathematics of Chemical...

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Unit 6: The Mathematics of Chemical Formulas # of H 2 O molecules # of H atoms # of O atoms 1 2 1 2 4 2 3 6 3 100 200 100 6.02 x 10 23 2 (6.02 x 10 23 ) 6.02 x 10 23 mass: 18 g mass: 2 g mass: 16 g molar mass : the mass of one mole of a substance PbO 2 Pb: 1 (207.2 g) = 207.2 g O: 2 (16.0 g) = 32.0 g HNO 3 H: 1 (1.0 g) = 1.0 g N: 1 (14.0 g) = 14.0 g O: 3 (16.0 g) = 48.0 g ammonium N: 3 (14.0 g) = 42.0 g phosphate H: 12 (1.0 g) = 12.0 g NH 4 1+ PO 4 3– P: 1 (31.0 g) = 31.0 g (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 O: 4 (16.0 g) = 64.0 g

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2 percentage composition : the mass % of each element in a compound Find % composition. PbO 2 Pb: 1(207.2 g) = 207.2 g Pb 239.2 g 86.6% Pb O: 2(16.0 g) = 32 g O 239.2 g 13.4% O (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 N: 3(14.0 g) = 42.0 g P 149.0 g 28.2% N H: 12(1.0 g) = 12.0 g H 149.0 g 8.1% H P: 1(31.0 g) = 31.0 g P 149.0 g 20.8% P O: 4(16.0 g) = 64.0 g O 149.0 g 43.0% O zinc acetate Zn 2+ CH 3 COO 1– Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 Zn: 1(65.4 g) = 65.4 g Zn 183.4 g 35.7% Zn C: 4(12.0 g) = 48.0 g C 183.4 g 26.2% C H: 6(1.0 g) = 6.0 g H 183.4 g 3.3% H O: 4(16.0 g) = 64.0 g O 183.4 g 34.9% O 183.4 g
Finding an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data 1. Find # of g of each element. 2. Convert each g to mol. 3. Divide each “# of mol” by the smallest “# of mol.” 4. Use ratio to find formula.

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