u9ohnotes18f2005

u9ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 9: The Gas Laws The Atmosphere an...

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Unit 9: The Gas Laws The Atmosphere an “ocean” of gases mixed together Composition nitrogen (N 2 )……………~78% oxygen (O 2 )…………….~21% argon (Ar)……………….~0.93% carbon dioxide (CO 2 )…. .~0.03% water vapor (H 2 O)………~0.1% Depletion of the Ozone Layer Ozone (O 3 ) in upper atmosphere blocks ultraviolet (UV) light from Sun. UV causes skin cancer and cataracts. O 3 depletion is caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Uses for CFCs: refrigerants aerosol propellants CFCs banned in U.S. in 1996 O 3 is replenished with each strike of lightning.
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2 The Greenhouse Effect Energy from Sun has short wavelengths ( λ s) and high energy. CO 2 and methane (CH 4 ) let this light in. Reflected light has longer λ s and less energy. CO 2 and CH 4 (“greenhouse gases ”) prevent reflected light from escaping, thus warming the atmosphere.
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Why more CO 2 in atmosphere now than 500 years ago? burning of fossil fuels deforestation -- coal -- urban sprawl -- petroleum -- wildlife areas -- natural gas -- rain forests -- wood * The burning of ethanol won’t slow greenhouse effect. What can we do? 1. Reduce consumption of fossil fuels. At home : insulate home; run dishwasher full; avoid temp. extremes (A/C & furnace); wash clothes on “warm,” not “hot” On the road : bike instead of drive; carpool; energy-efficient vehicles 2. Support environmental organizations. 3. Rely on alternate energy sources. solar, wind energy, hydroelectric power
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The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) -- explains why gases behave as they do -- deals w /“ideal” gas particles… 1. …are so small that they are assumed to have zero volume 2. …are in constant, straight-line motion 3. …experience elastic collisions in which no energy is lost 4. …have no attractive or repulsive forces toward each other 5. …have an average kinetic energy (KE) that is proportional to the absolute temp . of gas (i.e., Kelvin temp.) AS TEMP. , KE Theory “works,” except at high pressures and low temps. **Two gases w /same # of particles and at same temp. and pressure have the same kinetic energy. KE is related to mass and velocity (KE = ½ m v
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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u9ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 9: The Gas Laws The Atmosphere an...

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